Chloroquine cardiomyopathy – a review of the literature

@article{Tnnesmann2013ChloroquineC,
  title={Chloroquine cardiomyopathy – a review of the literature},
  author={Ernst T{\"o}nnesmann and Reinhard Kandolf and Thorsten Lewalter},
  journal={Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology},
  year={2013},
  volume={35},
  pages={434 - 442}
}
Abstract Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Moreover, they are experiencing a renaissance in the long-term therapy of connective tissue diseases (particularly in systemic lupus erythematosus). They induce a lysosomal dysfunction with an accumulation of pathologic metabolic products, which can be seen in ultrastructural histology as pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Due to its lower toxicity, hydroxychloroquine is the form… 
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TLDR
Based on a review of 57 reported cases of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine induced cardiomyopathy, dyspnea was the most common associated symptom and curvilinear inclusion bodies were seen on echocardiography.
Chloroquine- and Hydroxychloroquine–Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review
TLDR
CQ and HCQ myopathy can present following long-term administration of the drug, and the pathologic findings are nonspecific and overlap with other vacuolated myopathies, necessitating careful correlation with the patient’s medical history.
Heart Involvement in a Woman Treated with Hydroxychloroquine for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Revealing Fabry Disease
TLDR
The case of a patient, treated longterm with HCQ, with cardiac disorders revealing FD, a 61-year-old woman diagnosed 20 years ago for a CTD with dermatological disorders: alopecia, skin rash, and joint pain is reported.
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TLDR
AMIC is a rare, probably under-recognized, complication of prolonged AM treatment, and presents as a hypertrophic, restrictive cardiomyopathy with or without conduction abnormalities.
[Early cardiotoxicity of Hydroxychloroquine].
Hydroxychloroquine in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
TLDR
Hydroxychloroquine may offer several advantages not only in patients with mild SLE but can also exert important beneficial effects in lupus patients with organ involvement and in pregnant women, which should encourage a larger use of HCQ.
Hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy in a patient with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis
TLDR
A 58-year-old female with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis who was admitted to the authors' institution with HCQ-induced cardiotoxicity and her clinical situation rapidly deteriorated with development of severe cardiogenic shock, which led to the death of the patient.
American College of Rheumatology White Paper on Antimalarial Cardiac Toxicity.
TLDR
Current data clearly indicate that HCQ and CQ are invaluable medications in the management of rheumatic and dermatologic diseases, but they are associated with QTc prolongation by directly affecting cardiac repolarization, and prescribing clinicians should be cognizant of this small effect.
Chloroquine cardiomyopathy: beyond ocular adverse effects
A 36-year-old woman who had received long-term treatment with chloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus developed a third degree atrioventricular block and required a permanent pacemaker. Notably,
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