Chloroquine cardiomyopathy – a review of the literature

  title={Chloroquine cardiomyopathy – a review of the literature},
  author={Ernst T{\"o}nnesmann and Reinhard Kandolf and Thorsten Lewalter},
  journal={Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology},
  pages={434 - 442}
Abstract Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Moreover, they are experiencing a renaissance in the long-term therapy of connective tissue diseases (particularly in systemic lupus erythematosus). They induce a lysosomal dysfunction with an accumulation of pathologic metabolic products, which can be seen in ultrastructural histology as pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Due to its lower toxicity, hydroxychloroquine is the form… 
Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Concise Review
Based on a review of 57 reported cases of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine induced cardiomyopathy, dyspnea was the most common associated symptom and curvilinear inclusion bodies were seen on echocardiography.
Chloroquine- and Hydroxychloroquine–Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review
CQ and HCQ myopathy can present following long-term administration of the drug, and the pathologic findings are nonspecific and overlap with other vacuolated myopathies, necessitating careful correlation with the patient’s medical history.
Heart Involvement in a Woman Treated with Hydroxychloroquine for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Revealing Fabry Disease
The case of a patient, treated longterm with HCQ, with cardiac disorders revealing FD, a 61-year-old woman diagnosed 20 years ago for a CTD with dermatological disorders: alopecia, skin rash, and joint pain is reported.
Antimalarial-induced cardiomyopathy: a systematic review of the literature
AMIC is a rare, probably under-recognized, complication of prolonged AM treatment, and presents as a hypertrophic, restrictive cardiomyopathy with or without conduction abnormalities.
[Early cardiotoxicity of Hydroxychloroquine].
Hydroxychloroquine in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Hydroxychloroquine may offer several advantages not only in patients with mild SLE but can also exert important beneficial effects in lupus patients with organ involvement and in pregnant women, which should encourage a larger use of HCQ.
Hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy in a patient with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis
A 58-year-old female with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis who was admitted to the authors' institution with HCQ-induced cardiotoxicity and her clinical situation rapidly deteriorated with development of severe cardiogenic shock, which led to the death of the patient.
American College of Rheumatology White Paper on Antimalarial Cardiac Toxicity.
Current data clearly indicate that HCQ and CQ are invaluable medications in the management of rheumatic and dermatologic diseases, but they are associated with QTc prolongation by directly affecting cardiac repolarization, and prescribing clinicians should be cognizant of this small effect.
Chloroquine cardiomyopathy: beyond ocular adverse effects
A 36-year-old woman who had received long-term treatment with chloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus developed a third degree atrioventricular block and required a permanent pacemaker. Notably,


Cardiomyopathy Caused by Longterm Treatment with Chloroquine: A Rare Disease, or a Rare Diagnosis?
A case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and heart disease who was treated with CQ is reported, and the followup of potentially affected patients is of utmost importance.
Cardiomyopathy Related to Antimalarial Therapy with Illustrative Case Report
The potential for reversibility and the severity in undiagnosed cases of these toxic cardiomyopathies emphasize the importance of recognizing early signs of toxicity in order to withdraw antimalarials before the occurrence of life-threatening CHF.
Chloroquine related cardiac toxicity.
A 60-year-old woman with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis receiving multidrug treatment, including prolonged administration of chloroquine, developed complete heart block requiring a permanent pacemaker, congestive heart failure, and progressive myopathy, and died of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.
Cardiac damage from chronic use of chloroquine: a case report and review of the literature.
The case of a 58-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, in whom chronic chloroquine use resulted in major irreversible cardiac damage, is reported, and a permanent pacemaker was indicated.
[Heart conduction disorders in long-term treatment with chloroquine. Two new cases].
It is believed that chloroquine therapy should be contra-indicated in patients with a history of conduction disorders and that a 6-monthly electrocardiographic control of these patients would be justified.
A Case of Chloroquine-Induced Cardiomyopathy That Presented as Sick Sinus Syndrome
A 52-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who had been treated with prednisone and hydroxychloroquine for >12 years presented with chest discomfort and a seizure and is the first case report describing chloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy involving the heart conduction system.
Cardiac toxicity secondary to long term treatment with chloroquine
A patient with SLE who developed a complete heart block and a restrictive cardiomyopathy owing to chronic treatment with chloroquine is described.
Hydroxychloroquine-induced restrictive cardiomyopathy.