Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum: Effect of Substrate on Chloroquine and Amodiaquin Accumulation

@article{Fitch1974ChloroquineResistantPF,
  title={Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum: Effect of Substrate on Chloroquine and Amodiaquin Accumulation},
  author={Coy D. Fitch and Rekha Chevli and Yolanda Gonz{\'a}lez},
  journal={Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy},
  year={1974},
  volume={6},
  pages={757 - 762}
}
Glucose stimulates the high-affinity processes of chloroquine and amodiaquin accumulation in owl monkey erythrocytes infected with a chloroquine-susceptible strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Although these erythrocytes have greater ability to accumulate amodiaquin than chloroquine, glucose has relatively less effect on amodiaquin accumulation than on chloroquine accumulation. In contrast to these findings with chloroquine-susceptible P. falciparum, glucose stimulates amodiaquin but not… 
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The hypothesis of inadequate exposure of intracellular parasites as the cause of chloroquine resistance to P. berghei is supported.
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TLDR
There is definitive evidence that chloroquine (CQ) uptake in Plasmodium falciparum is determined by binding to ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX), and diverse compounds that are known to disrupt lysosomal pH can mimic the verapamil effect are proposed.
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