Ultrastructural changes in chloroplasts of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with the introduced desC gene for the acyl-lipid Δ9-desaturase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus were investigated during plant acclimation to cold. Control plants were transformed with an empty pGA482 binary vector. At optimum growth temperature, a decreased number of grana and thylakoids and an increased number of plastoglobules and their larger area were observed in transgenic plants when compared to control ones. In control plants, acclimation to cold (6 days at 10°C) resulted in the larger areas of chloroplasts and grana. These changes indicated starting cold-induced injuries manifested in swelling of the stroma and a slight decrease in the total number of thylakoids in the chloroplast. In contrast, transgenic plants responded to cold by reducing the chloroplast, granal, and plastoglobule areas. Meantime, the number of thylakoids per granum increased noticeably. The total number of thylakoids in the chloroplast increased from 123 to 203. It was concluded that expression of the acyl-lipid Δ9-desaturase gene in tobacco plants provided for the formation of the cell ultrastructure similar to one characteristic of cold-tolerant plants.