Chloroplast DNA sequence from a Miocene Magnolia species

  title={Chloroplast DNA sequence from a Miocene Magnolia species},
  author={Edward M Golenberg and David E. Giannasi and Michael T. Clegg and Charles J. Smiley and Mary L. Durbin and David Henderson and Gerard Zurawski},
DNA has been successfully extracted from several samples of preserved tissue, the oldest so far reported originating from a 13,000-year-old ground sloth1.But severe damage to the preserved DNA, primarily due to oxidation of the pyrimidines1, has prevented the acquisition of sequence data from ancient samples except in a few cases2–4. We report here the extraction of DNA from fossil leaf samples from the Miocene Clarkia deposit (17-20 My r old), the amplification of an 820-base pair (bp) DNA… 

An rbcL sequence from a Miocene Taxodium (bald cypress).

The successful amplification, sequencing, and analysis of a 1320-base-pair portion of the chloroplast gene rbcL from a Miocene Taxodium specimen, also from the Clarkia site, suggest that it may be possible to isolate and sequence DNAs routinely from the Miocene Clarkia deposit.

Amplification and analysis of Miocene plant fossil DNA.

  • E. Golenberg
  • Geography
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1991
It is indicated that analysis of Miocene fossil DNA can be replicated, and can, therefore, open up the prospects for future development of the field of molecular palaeontology.

Ancient DNA: Prospects and limitations

The principal limitations of fossil DNA extraction and characterisation are discussed, including degradation and modification of ancient DNA, difficulties in amplification of target sequences via the polymerase chain reaction, and the special problems that contamination presents for amplification and verification of fossilDNA sequences.

Ancient plant DNA: review and prospects.

The trend from species identification to population-level investigation is emphasized and the potential and the difficulties in this field, related to DNA preservation and to risks of contamination are highlighted.

DNA sequences from a fossil termite in Oligo-Miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications.

Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and extant 18S rDNA confirmed morphological cladistic analyses of living dictyopterans (termites, cockroaches, and mantids) and affects molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of termites in this, the oldest DNA yet characterized.

DNA from pollen: principles and potential

Comparison of the ancient sequences with modern sequences obtained from an extant population, establish a first genetic link between modern and fossil samples of Scots pine, providing a genetic continuity through time.

Bacterial DNA in Clarkia fossils.

Analysis of extracts prepared from the plant remains shows that the high molecular mass (HMM) DNA that can be detected in some extracts from Clarkia fossils is mostly, if not exclusively, of bacterial origin.

DNA sequence from a fossil pollen of Abies spp. from Pleistocene peat.

This study showed not only a successful DNA analysis from a single grain of fossil pollen but also a new method to identify the species of Fossil pollen for the pollen analysis field.



DNA sequences from the quagga, an extinct member of the horse family

Dried muscle from a museum specimen of the quagga, a zebra-like species that became extinct in 1883, is examined, and DNA was extracted in amounts approaching 1% of that expected from fresh muscle, and that the DNA was of relatively low molecular weight.

Mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 7000-year old brain.

The sequences show that this ancient individual belonged to a mitochondrial lineage that is rare in the Old World and not previously known to exist among Native Americans, bringing to three the number of maternal lineages known to have been involved in the prehistoric colonization of the New World.

Ancient DNA: extraction, characterization, molecular cloning, and enzymatic amplification.

  • S. Pääbo
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1989
The polymerase chain reaction can be used to amplify and study short mitochondrial DNA sequences that are of anthropological and evolutionary significance and opens up the prospect of performing diachronical studies of molecular evolutionary genetics.

Molecular cloning of Ancient Egyptian mummy DNA

Analysis of 23 mummies investigated for DNA content show that substantial pieces of mummy DNA can be cloned and that the DNA fragments seem to contain little or no modifications introduced postmortem.


Examination of the chemistry of the fossil, Pseudofagus idahoensis, and comparison with extant Fagus species and related fagoid genera indicate that it does belong in the Fagaceae, and the taxonomic and systematic utility of using the paleobiochemistry of fossil plants in comparative chemical studies with putative extant relatives is shown.

The Nature of Nucleotide Sequence Divergence between Barley and Maize Chloroplast DNA.

Compared to spinach chloroplast DNA, the barley rbcL-atpB untranslated region is extremely diverged, with only the putative rBCL promoters and ribosome-binding site being extensively conserved.

The complete nucleotide sequence of the tobacco chloroplast genome: its gene organization and expression

Five sequences coding for proteins homologous to components of the respiratory‐chain NADH dehydrogenase from human mitochondria have been found and sequence and expression analyses indicate both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features of the chloroplast genes.

The structure of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from spinach chloroplast DNA.

A cloned fragment of spinach chloroplast DNA carrying the gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase has been analysed by electron microscopy of R-loops, by hybridization

The maize chloroplast genes for the beta and epsilon subunits of the photosynthetic coupling factor CF1 are fused.

Immunochemical and sequencing data show that the gene codes for the beta subunit of the maize chloroplast coupling factor complex (CF1) is highly homologous to that of the corresponding E. coli protein.