Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil

@article{Brookes1985ChloroformFA,
  title={Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil},
  author={Philip C. Brookes and Andrea Landman and G. Pruden and D. S. Jenkinson},
  journal={Soil Biology \& Biochemistry},
  year={1985},
  volume={17},
  pages={837-842}
}
Abstract A new “direct extraction” method for measuring soil microbial biomass nitrogen (biomass N) is described. The new method (fumigation-extraction) is based on CHC1 3 fumigation, followed by immediate extraction with 0.5 M K 2 SO 4 and measurement of total N released by CHC1 3 in the soil extracts. The amounts of NH 4 -N and total N extracted by K 2 SO 4 immediately after fumigation increased with fumigation time up to 5 days. Total N released by CHC1 3 after 1 day fumigation (1 day CHC1 3… Expand
Extraction of soil nitrogen by chloroform fumigation – A new index for the evaluation of soil nitrogen supply
Abstract The N extracted after chloroform (CHCl 3 ) fumigation was determined as a possible index of soil N supply to plants. The relationships between extractable N following fumigation andExpand
Is microbial biomass measurement by the chloroform fumigation extraction method biased by experimental addition of N and P?
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Abstract: The chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method determines microbial biomass carbon (MBC) or nitrogen (MBN) by calculating the increase in extractable carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) due toExpand
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Abstract A chloroform-fumigation extraction method with fumigation at atmospheric pressure (CFAP, without vacuum) was developed for measuring microbial biomass C (CBIO) and N (NBIO) inExpand
Ninhydrin-reactive n released by the fumigation-extraction method as a measure of microbial biomass under field conditions
TLDR
Ninhydrin-reactive N extracted after a 1-day fumigation with CHC13 was compared to the C and N released by the fumigate-incubation method (FIM) in 37 soil samples collected from three tillage systems, and pastures in Atlantic Canada. Expand
Evaluation of the fumigation-extraction method for the determination of microbial C and N in a range of forest soils.
The release of extractable C and N by chloroform fumigation of 10 forest and two arable soils was compared with microbial C measured by direct microscopic counting (membrane filter technique). TheExpand
Estimating microbial biomass nitrogen using the fumigation-incubation and fumigation-extraction methods in a warm-temperate forest soil
Microbial biomass-N was measured in the top 60 cm of acid soils on a forested slope using the fumigation-incubation and fumigation-extraction methods. Average microbial biomass-N was 54.4 and 68.5 gExpand
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The fumigation-extraction method was tested to see if it could be used to measure soil microbial biomass in waterlogged soil. Three Japanese paddy soils were incubated, aerobically or anaerobicallyExpand
Importance of soil water content when estimating soil microbial C, N and P by the fumigation-extraction methods
Abstract The influence of soil water content on the estimation of microbial C, N and P by the fumigation-extraction (FE) method and microbial C and N by the fumigation-incubation (FI) method wasExpand
Estimation of microbial biomass nitrogen by chloroform fumigation extraction method in a forest soil
Abstract The amounts of K2SO4 extractable total N (Nt(K2SO4)), organic N (Norg(K2SO4)), and inorganic N (NH4 + – N(K2SO4), NO3 − – N(K2SO4)) were measured before and after CHCl3 of previously nonExpand
Influences of Chloroform Exposure Time and Soil Water Content on C and N Release in Forest Soils
We investigated the influence of fumigation conditions of the chloroform fumigation‐ extraction method on the release of extractable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from organic and mineral soil horizonsExpand
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Fumigation with CHC13 (24 h, 25°C) increased the amount of NH4-N and total N extracted by 0.5 M K2SO4 from two soils (one arable, one grassland). The amount of N released by CHC13 increased with theExpand
Determination of kC and kNin situ for calibration of the chloroform fumigation-incubation method
Abstract 14 C-labelled glucose and 15 N-labelled KNO 3 were added to soil and the microbial biomass during 42 days' incubation was estimated using the chloroform fumigation-incubation method (CFIM).Expand
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Immobilization of N was measured in a fumigated and in an unfumigated soil by adding (15NH4)2SO4 and following the disappearance of inorganic label from the soil solution and its simultaneousExpand
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TLDR
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A new method for the determination of biomass in soil is described. Soil is fumigated with CHCl3 vapour, the CHCl3 removed and the soil then incubated. The biomass is calculated from the differenceExpand
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Chloroform fumigation and the release
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