Chitin and Its Effects on Inflammatory and Immune Responses

  title={Chitin and Its Effects on Inflammatory and Immune Responses},
  author={Daniel Elieh Ali Komi and Lokesh Sharma and Charles S. Dela Cruz},
  journal={Clinical Reviews in Allergy \& Immunology},
Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it… 
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It is found that colitis in male mice was ameliorated by CMPs and large chitin beads (LCBs; 40 to 70 μm) but not by chitosan (deacetylated chitIn) microparticles, oligosaccharide chit in, or glucosamine, while in female colitis, LCBs were more effective than C MPs.
Human Chitinases: Structure, Function, and Inhibitor Discovery.
This chapter outlines the structural features of CHIT1 and AMcase, and reviews the progress in understanding the role of human chitinases in the development of various diseases, and summarizes the inhibitor discovery efforts targeting both CHIT 1 and AMCase.
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Promiscuous activation could occur when a structurally similar but physiologically inappropriate ligand binds and thereby aberrantly activates an incorrect LysM domain-containing receptor, implications for immune pathologies such as asthma in which chitin is relevant.
Immune Responses of Mammals and Plants to Chitin-Containing Pathogens.
This chapter focuses on the responses and signal transduction pathways that are activated in mammals and plants upon invasion by chitin-containing organisms and pays special attention to the chit inases that are involved in immune recognition.
Cryptococcus neoformans Chitin Synthase 3 Plays a Critical Role in Dampening Host Inflammatory Responses
It is concluded that Chs3, along with chitosan, plays critical roles in dampening cryptococcus-induced host inflammatory responses, and this study found that mice inoculated with the chs3Δ strain all died within 36 h and that death was associated with an aberrant hyperinflammatory immune response driven by neutrophils.
Unique subsite specificity and potential natural function of a chitosan deacetylase from the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
The detailed functional analysis of CnCda4, a chitin deacetylase with unusual subsite specificity resulting in a preference for chitosan rather than chitIn, is described, showing that the enzyme probably helps the pathogen to evade the host immune system by furtherDeacetylating exposed chitan, making the fungus less susceptible to host immunosurveillance.
Significance of Mast Cell Formed Extracellular Traps in Microbial Defense
Comparing the type and biofunction of further MCET decorating proteins with ETs produced by other immune cells may help provide a better insight into MCET biology in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders as well as microbial defense.
Plant immunity and symbiosis signaling mediated by LysM receptors
This review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of the defense and symbiosis signaling mediated by LysM receptors, including the activation steps of chitin-induced defense signaling downstream of LysM receptor.
Immunomodulation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome through Structure-Based Activator Design and Functional Regulation via Lysosomal Rupture
It is demonstrated that each molecule differentially activates the inflammasome based solely on their degree of lysosomal rupture, and this understanding of chemical control in structure-based design of immunomodulatory NLRP3 agonists on a semipredictive basis is employed.
Proteolytic, lipidergic and polysaccharide molecular recognition shape innate responses to house dust mite allergens
A contemporary view of how proteolysis, lipid‐binding activity and interactions with polysaccharides andpolysaccharide molecular recognition systems coordinate the principal responses which underlie allergy is provided.


Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy
It is shown that chitin induces the accumulation in tissue of IL-4-expressing innate immune cells, including eosinophils and basophils, when given to mice, and this process can be negatively regulated by a vertebrate chit inase.
Chitin, Chitinases and Chitinase-like Proteins in Allergic Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling
  • C. Lee
  • Biology
    Yonsei medical journal
  • 2009
Recent findings on the role of chitin and C/CLP in allergic inflammation and tissue remodeling will be highlighted and controversial and unsolved issues in this field of studies will be discussed.
Fungal Chitin Dampens Inflammation through IL-10 Induction Mediated by NOD2 and TLR9 Activation
It is shown that three immune cell receptors– the mannose receptor, NOD2 and TLR9 recognise chitin and act together to mediate an anti-inflammatory response via secretion of the cytokine IL-10, which may prevent inflammation-based damage during fungal infection and restore immune balance after an infection has been cleared.
Chitin Modulates Innate Immune Responses of Keratinocytes
It is shown that chitin is bioactive on primary and immortalized keratinocytes by triggering production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and expression of MyD88-associated TLRs, two major components of innate immunity.
Chitin Is a Size-Dependent Regulator of Macrophage TNF and IL-10 Production1
Chitin contains size-dependent pathogen-associated molecular patterns that stimulate TLR2, dectin-1, and the mannose receptor, differentially activate NF-κB and spleen tyrosine kinase, and stimulate the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
TLR-2 and IL-17A in Chitin-Induced Macrophage Activation and Acute Inflammation1
It is demonstrated that chitin is a size-dependent pathogen-associated molecular pattern that activates TLR-2 and MyD88 in a novel IL-17A/IL-17AR-based innate immunity pathway.
Role of mammalian chitinases in inflammatory conditions.
In vivo neutralization of chitinase 3-like-1 significantly suppressed the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by dramatically decreasing the bacterial adhesion and invasion into colonic epithelial cells.
Recognition and Blocking of Innate Immunity Cells by Candida albicans Chitin
ABSTRACT Chitin is a skeletal cell wall polysaccharide of the inner cell wall of fungal pathogens. As yet, little about its role during fungus-host immune cell interactions is known. We show here