Chitin Biochemistry: Synthesis and Inhibition

@article{Cohen1987ChitinBS,
  title={Chitin Biochemistry: Synthesis and Inhibition},
  author={Ephraim Cohen},
  journal={Annual Review of Entomology},
  year={1987},
  volume={32},
  pages={71-93}
}
  • E. Cohen
  • Published 1987
  • Biology
  • Annual Review of Entomology
Chitin is an amino-sugar polysaccharide that serves as a supporting element in extracellular structures, notably in exoskeletons of arthropods (91) and cell walls of various fungi (88). Chitin is prevalent in invertebrates (43, 105) and is found in certain diatom algae (45). In insects, this biopolymer is a major carbohydrate component of chito-protein complexes such as the cuticle and the peritrophic membrane (1, 92, 100, 105). Taking into consideration the global biomass of arthropods… Expand
Chitin Biochemistry: Synthesis, Hydrolysis and Inhibition
TLDR
Chitin research carries practical aspect as the physiologically crucial synthesis and hydrolysis of the polymer have been regarded as suitable, attractive and largely selective targets for interference and for producing effective pharmaceuticals and safe biopesticides. Expand
Chitin synthesis and inhibition: a revisit.
  • E. Cohen
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Pest management science
  • 2001
TLDR
The recent isolation and sequencing of insect CS genes should help in elucidating various aspects of chitin biochemistry and inhibition, and are expected to shed light on the mode of action of acylurea insecticides. Expand
Chapter 43 – Chitin
  • E. Cohen
  • Chemistry, Materials Science
  • 2009
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses synthesis and degradation of chitin biopolymer. Chitin is present to a small or large extent in most invertebrates, notably in cuticles of arthropods, inExpand
Evolution and multi-functionality of the chitin system.
Chitin, that is, the beta-1, 4 linked polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, is best known as a cell wall component of fungi and as skeletal material of invertebrates. In recent years this simpleExpand
Chitin Metabolism in Insects
Publisher Summary This chapter highlights some of the recent and important findings obtained from studies conducted on the synthesis, structure, physical state, modification, organization, andExpand
Chitin in Arthropods: Biosynthesis, Modification, and Metabolism.
TLDR
This chapter mainly discussed the biochemical processes of chitin biosynthesis, modification and degradation, and various enzymes involved in these processes, and discussed cuticular proteins and PM proteins, which largely determine the physicochemical properties of the cuticle and PM. Expand
Chitin synthesis and degradation as targets for pesticide action.
  • E. Cohen
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology
  • 1993
TLDR
Hydrolytic degradation of the chitin polymer is essential for hyphal growth, branching, and septum formation in fungal systems as well as for the normal molting of arthropods. Expand
Chitin synthesis inhibitors: old molecules and new developments
TLDR
This review summarizes the latest advances on the mode of action of chitin synthesis inhibitors with a special focus on those molecules that act on a postcatalytic step of ch itin synthesis. Expand
Insect Chitin: Metabolism, Genomics and Pest Management
TLDR
Understanding the various nuances of chitin metabolism and regulation with all the genomic resources on hand will undoubtedly pave the way for developing more target-oriented softer control agents that have minimal impact on the environment. Expand
Genetics and molecular biology of chitin synthesis in fungi.
  • C. Bulawa
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annual review of microbiology
  • 1993
TLDR
The available data suggest that many fungi have more than one chitin synthase and that these synthases are related to the S. cerevisiae CHS and CSD gene products. Expand
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References

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Chitin: Structure, Metabolism, and Regulation of Biosynthesis
Chitin is ans ubiquitous component of fungal cell walls. Only a few classes of fungi, such as the Oomycetes and Trichomycetes (Bartnicki-Garcia 1968) appear to lack chitin. Even in species of theExpand
INSECT CHITIN SYNTHETASE AS A BIOCHEMICAL PROBE FOR INSECTICIDAL COMPOUNDS
TLDR
Five possible modes of action of benzoylphenyl ureas in inhibiting chitin synthesis are evaluated: action via a potent metabolite; disruption of accessibility of substrate and activators; interference with mechanisms involving removal of inhibitory UDP; inhibition of proteolytic activity required for activation of a presumed zymogenic CS; and interference with a delicate and sensitive control mechanism of CS activity. Expand
Interference with chitin biosynthesis in insects
Chitin is a naturally abundant highly organized amino-sugar biopolymer. It is found in diverse taxonomic groups as a structural element largely for supportive purposes. Chitin is formed by certainExpand
THE CHITIN SYSTEM
1 The view is supported that chitin is not found in Deuterostomia because of the absence of chitin synthetase, and is not found in higher plants because of the absence of glucosamine. In Fungi,Expand
In vitro chitin synthesis in an insect: formation and structure of microfibrils.
  • E. Cohen
  • Biology, Medicine
  • European journal of cell biology
  • 1982
TLDR
Electron microscopic examination of the CS product reveals a network of long, parallel oriented microfibrils which are largely spheroidal and range from about 50 to 250 nm in diameter, and their possible role in chitin synthesis and fibrillogenesis in insects is discussed. Expand
Isolation of chitosomes from taxonomically diverse fungi and synthesis of chitin microfibrils in Vitro
TLDR
The isolation of functional chitosomes from five widely diverse genera, representing five major fungal groups and three distinct developmental forms, suggests that the chitOSomes are a ubiquitous component of the cytoplasmic mechanism that conveys chitin synthetase to the sites of microfibril assembly at the surface of fungal cells. Expand
Properties of chitin synthetase in isolated chitosomes from yeast cells of Mucor rouxii.
TLDR
Chitin synthetase was isolated and purified 120-fold from the supernatant fraction of broken yeast cells of Mucor rouxii and found to have much greater stability against spontaneous activation and destruction than crude enzyme. Expand
Properties of Tribolium gut chitin synthetase
TLDR
The polymerization product formed by the Tribolium enzyme is stable in alkali but hydrolyzed by chitinase, and its activation and inhibition properties are similar to those of fungal CS. Expand
Mode of action of two benzoylphenyl ureas as inhibitors of chitin synthesis in insects
TLDR
Final proof that chitin synthetase in insects is the target for benzoylphenyl ureas can only be given when chit in synthetases can be isolated from insect tissue and studied in vitro. Expand
Microfibril assembly by granules of chitin synthetase.
TLDR
Purified preparations of chitin synthetase isolated from yeast cells of Mucor rouxii lend support to the granule hypothesis for the elaboration of cell wall microfibrils by end-synthesis. Expand
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