Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition

  title={Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition},
  author={Gordon G. Jr. Gallup},
  pages={86 - 87}
  • G. Gallup
  • Published 2 January 1970
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Science
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have this capacity. 
Monkeys seem to recognize their reflections
Trained macaques studied themselves in mirrors, fuelling debate over animals' capacity for self-recognition.
Capacity for Self-Recognition in Differentially Reared Chimpanzees
Chimpanzees born in captivity and reared in social isolation did not show behaviors suggestive of self-recognition, but wild-born chimpanzees given prolonged exposure to mirrors learned to recognize their own reflections.
Mirror Self-Recognition in Primates: An Ontogenetic and a Phylogenetic Approach
We often see a mother play with her baby while exposing it to a mirror. The baby tries to reach out its hand to its reflection in the mirror and laughs, or stares into its reflection with wonder. How
Chimpanzee Spatial Memory Organization
Juvenile chimpanzees, carried around an outdoor field and shown up to 18 randomly placed hidden foods, remembered most of these hiding places and the type of food that was in each. Their search
Toward a Comparative Psychology of Self-Awareness: Species Limitations and Cognitive Consequences
The first published report of mirror self-recognition in a nonhuman appeared in the literature several decades ago and positive results have only been obtained with humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans.
"Self-awareness" in the pigeon.
Each of three pigeons used a mirror to locate a spot on its body which it could not see directly, and this example suggests an account in terms of environmental events.
Self-consciousness: beyond the looking-glass and what dogs found there
Self-recognition, that is, the recognition of one’s own self, has been studied mainly by examining animals’ and children’s responses to their reflections in mirrors (Gallup et al. 2002). The defini...
Absence of self-recognition in a monkey (Macaca fascicularis) following prolonged exposure to a mirror.
  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Biology
    Developmental psychobiology
  • 1977
The data indicate possible differences between great apes and monkeys in self-awareness and a more explicit test of self-recognition yielded negative results.
Rhesus monkeys are radical behaviorists
  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1996
Abstract The data reviewed in Barresi & Moore's treatment of social understanding is recast in terms of a model of social intelligence that was advanced some time ago (Gallup 1982). When it comes to
Long‐term retention of self‐recognition by chimpanzees
The chimpanzee's self‐awareness, as inferred from its self‐recognition, appears to be a stable characteristic of the animal.


Mirror-image stimulation.
  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1968
SuLpportedI in part by NIH grant RR 00164 t(o the Delta Regional P'rimate Research Centcr
  • Novemiiber
  • 1969
SuLpportedI in part by NIH grant RR 00164 t(o the Delta Regional P'rimate Research Centcr. I thank M. K. McCltire for help in data collection