Children and Gender Inequality : Evidence from Denmark ∗

  title={Children and Gender Inequality : Evidence from Denmark ∗},
  author={Henrik Jacobsen Kleven and Camille Landais},
Despite considerable gender convergence over time, substantial gender inequality persists in all countries. Using Danish administrative data from 1980-2011, we show that most of the remaining gender inequality can be attributed to the dynamic effects of having children. The arrival of children leads to a long-run penalty in female earnings of 21% driven in roughly equal proportions by labor force participation, hours of work, and wage rates. Underlying this child penalty, we find clear dynamic… CONTINUE READING