Children's Search for Gender Cues

  title={Children's Search for Gender Cues},
  author={Carol Lynn Martin and Diane N. Ruble},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  pages={67 - 70}
  • C. Martin, D. Ruble
  • Published 1 April 2004
  • Psychology, Sociology
  • Current Directions in Psychological Science
Young children search for cues about gender—who should or should not do a particular activity, who can play with whom, and why girls and boys are different. From a vast array of gendered cues in their social worlds, children quickly form an impressive constellation of gender cognitions, including gender self-conceptions (gender identity) and gender stereotypes. Cognitive perspectives on gender development (i.e., cognitive developmental theory and gender-schema theory) assume that children… 

Figures from this paper

The effects of gendered information in stories on preschool children's development of gender stereotypes.
Gender information in stories influences how children perceive unknown words, and children showed higher interest in the unknown activity if the protagonist's gender matched their own sex.
Gender Essentialism in Children and Parents: Implications for the Development of Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Typed Preferences
Psychological essentialism is a set of lay beliefs about categories, according to which certain categories are seen as natural and arising from an inborn, causal force or “essence.” Social
Measuring Implicit Gender Stereotypes Using the Preschool Auditory Stroop
ABSTRACT Numerous studies suggest that by elementary school, children have implicit and explicit gender stereotypes about the toys, activities, roles, and abilities associated with boys vs. girls.
What Might Books Be Teaching Young Children About Gender?
We investigated how gender is represented in children’s books using a novel 200,000-word corpus comprising 247 popular, contemporary books for young children. Using adult human judgments and word
Socialising gender : the role of parents, peers, and the media in children's gender-typed preferences and stereotypes
Within this thesis the environmental factors influencing children's gender-related cognitions are examined. Using multiple methods, the roles of parents, peers, and the media were investigated in
Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.
Inclusive classroom environments : creating space for gender non-conforming, diverse family structures
Children who are gender non-conforming (GNC) and children who have diverse family structures (DFS) often experience feelings of not belonging, peer rejection, and lower emotional well-being. Drawing
“Only girls play with those”: An Analysis of Preschoolers’ Gender Schema Development through Gender Stereotype Knowledge and Recognition of Gendered Information
Since Sandra Bem’s introduction of Gender Schema Theory (GST), researchers have analyzed how gender schemas influence children’s information processing (Signorella, Bigler, & Liben, 1993; Welch-Ross
Will They Listen to Me? An Examination of In-Group Gender Bias in Children’s Communication Beliefs
We assessed developmental and gender differences in children’s beliefs about their peers’ communication styles. We hypothesized that children hold more favorable beliefs (i.e., more responsiveness


When the Name Says it All: Preschoolers' Recognition and Use of the Gendered Nature of Common Proper Names
By the time they enter preschool children have acquired extensive knowledge of gender stereotypes. There has been little work on their use of this knowledge to make inferences about behavior; there
The developmental course of gender differentiation: conceptualizing, measuring, and evaluating constructs and pathways.
The Monograph offers alternative models of the developmental relation between attitudes toward others and characterization of self (the attitudinal and the personal pathway models), and identifies conditions expected to influence the strength of the observed other-self relation.
Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation.
This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning, which specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course.
The effects of sex-typing schemas on young children's memory.
MARTIN, CAROL LYNN, and HALVERSON, CHARLES F., JR. The Effects of Sex-typing Schemas on Young Children's Memory. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 54, 1983, 563-574. Children 5-6 years of age were shown pictures
Cognitive theories of early gender development.
The essence of cognitive approaches--emphasis on motivational consequences of gender concepts; the active, self-initiated view of development; and focus on developmental patterns-is highlighted and contrasted with social-cognitive views.
Social categorization and the formation of intergroup attitudes in children.
As predicted, the functional use of color groups affected children's attitudes toward group members, with children showing consistent biases favoring their own group.
The development of the social self.
Introduction. M.Bennett, F. Sani, Children and Social Identity. Basic Issues. D.N.Ruble, J.Alvarez, M.Bachman, J.Cameron, A.Fuligni, C.G.Coll, E.Rhee, The Development of a Sense of 'We': The
The development of sex typing in middle childhood.
Cognitive maturation and socialization experiences contribute to the development of sex typing during middle childhood, and the need for an integrative theory of sex-role development is supported, incorporating factors emphasized by cognitive-developmental, schematic-processing, and social learning theories.
Rigidity and flexibility of gender stereotypes in childhood: Developmental or differential?
Previous research has shown that the early learning of male–female categories is characterized by rigid beliefs about stereotypic differences, but that once gender knowledge is well established, the
Child psychology : a handbook of contemporary issues
Part 1: Infancy. "W.S. Grolnick, J.M. McMenamy, C.O. Kurowski," Emotional Self Regulation in Infancy and Toddlerhood. "T. Wachs," The What, Why, and How of Temperament: A Piece of the Action. "J.