Children's Attributions for Success and Failure: Effects of Age and Attentional Focus.

@article{Wigfield1988ChildrensAF,
  title={Children's Attributions for Success and Failure: Effects of Age and Attentional Focus.},
  author={Allan Wigfield},
  journal={Journal of Educational Psychology},
  year={1988},
  volume={80},
  pages={76-81}
}
  • Allan Wigfield
  • Published 1 March 1988
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Educational Psychology
This study was an assessment of how children's achievement attributions were influenced by their age, attentional focus, gender, and success or failure experience. Older and younger elementary school children performed a memory task under either self-focusing or task-focusing instructions. After performance, half of the children in each condition were given success feedback and the other half failure feedback. Attributions for performance were then obtained. In the success condition, children… 

Tables from this paper

Achievement attributions are associated with specific rather than general learning delays.

Attributions for Academic Success and Failure: An Individual Difference Investigation of Academic Achievement and Gender

Ability, effort, and external attributions for academic success/failure as a function of achievement and gender were investigated for 237 elementary school children. Six attributions were the

Feedback and Goal Conditions: Effects on Attributions of Gifted Adolescents.

study investigated the cognitive styles, attributions, and self-evaluations of 40 gifted girls and 40 gifted boys, grades 6 through 8. Informational attributional ratings for task difficulty, luck,

Attribution style in adolescents with Down's syndrome

Educational research places emphasis on the fact that individuals who have experienced repeated failures may develop an attribution profile characterized by a bias towards primarily external causes.

Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

TLDR
Investigation of relations among African American mothers' stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academics self-views found parents' stereotypes were related to children's ability attributions.

Attribution Of Success And Failure In A Task: Is GroupMembership A Determinant?

This study investigated influence of group membership on attribution of success and failure in a task. A total of 36 participants comprising 16males and 20 females between the ages of 22 to 26 years

A study of causal attributions for success and failure in mathematics among Brazilian students

As causal attributions for school success and failure are central constructs for achievement motivation, an investigation of causal attributions for success and failure in a mathematics exam was

A developmental study of school performance explanations of 6 to 11-year-olds: Causal differentiation and internality norm

Children's explanations of their performances are characterized by an increase of internal explanations over external ones. Originally considered a manifestation of cognitive development, this change

Attributional Choices for Academic Success and Failure by Intellectually Gifted Students

This study emerges from the lack of empirical research on gifted students' attributions about academic success and failure in multiple subject areas and school in general. We explored differences in
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES

The Development of the Concepts of Effort and Ability, Perception of Academic Attainment, and the Understanding that Difficult Tasks Require More Ability.

Academic Attainment, and the Understanding That Difficult Tasks Require More Ability. CmrL DEVELOPMENT, 1978, 49, 800-814. Selected cognitive developments presumed to mediate the development of

Effort: The Double-Edged Sword in School Achievement.

Self-worth theory suggests that teachers and students often operate at crosspurposes: Teachers encourage achievement through effort, yet many students attempt to avoid the implication that they lack

Sex differences in attributions and learned helplessness

This investigation assessed the hypothesis that girls are more likely to be learned helpless in math than boys. Students in grades 5 through 11 completed questionnaires assessing their causal

Causal attributions and information seeking to explain success and failure.

A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences.

  • B. Weiner
  • Psychology
    Journal of educational psychology
  • 1979
TLDR
It appears that a general theory of motivation is under development that has important implications for the understanding of classroom thought and behavior.

Reactions to Achievement Behavior From a Teacher and Student Perspective: A Developmental Analysis

Participants from first grade through college (N = 168) evaluated the achievement behavior of hypothetical students differing in ability, effort expenditure, and test outcome, both from the

Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction?

A review of the evidence for and against the proposition that self-serving biases affect attributions of causality indicated that there is little empirical support for the proposition in its most