HIV risk among men who have sex with men who have experienced childhood sexual abuse: systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the relationships among childhood sexual abuse, social discrimination, psychological distress, and HIV-risk among Latino gay and bisexual men in the United States. METHODS Data were from a probability sample of 912 men from Miami, FL; Los Angeles, CA; and New York, NY. We used logistic regression and path analyses to examine direct and indirect effects of childhood sexual abuse on psychological distress and sexual risk behavior. RESULTS We found a 15.8% (95% confidence interval = 12.3%, 19.2%) prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. Not having sex before age 16 years and having consensual sex before age 16 years did not differ from each other in predicting any of the outcomes of interest. Forced sex was associated with a significantly increased risk for all outcomes. A path analyses yielded direct effects of childhood sexual abuse and exposure to homophobia during childhood and during adulthood on psychological distress and indirect effects on risky sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS HIV-risk patterns among Latino gay and bisexual men are related to childhood sexual abuse and a social context of discrimination, which combined lead to symptoms of psychological distress and participation in risky sexual situations that increase risky sexual behaviors associated with HIV acquisition.