Lymphoblasts from 23 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 10 with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) were studied by complement-dependent microcytoxicity tests with two nonhuman primate antisera defining leukemia-associated and lymphoma-associated antigens. Cells form 15 patients with ALL and 1 with LBL reacted only with antiserum to chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL). These group-I patients were predominantly female. Most were pancytopenic and lacked mediastinal widening and T-cell markers; lymphoblasts from 15 were periodic acid-Schiff-positive. Cells from 8 male patients reacted only with antiserum to converted lymphosarcoma (LS). All these group-II patients expressed T-cell markers; 5 had mediastinal enlargement and 2, an abdominal mass. Six of the 8 were PAS-negative. Cells from 9 patients reacted with both antisera. The group-III patients demonstrated some characteristics of each of the above groups. Patients whose lymphoblasts reacted with CLL antiserum presented with clinical and laboratory features indicative of a good prognosis, i.e., ALL with PAS positivity and no T-cell markers or localized mass. Patients whose cells reacted with LS antiserum often had bad prognostic features: mediastinal or abdominal mass, expression of T-cell markers, and PAS negativity. These antisera appear able to differentiate childhood ALL from LBL. The distinction is important prognostically and perhaps therapeutically.