Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part I.

@article{Birmaher1996ChildhoodAA,
  title={Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part I.},
  author={Boris Birmaher and Neal D. Ryan and Douglas E. Williamson and David A. Brent and Joan Kaufman and Ronald E. Dahl and James M. Perel and Beverly Nelson},
  journal={Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry},
  year={1996},
  volume={35 11},
  pages={
          1427-39
        }
}
  • B. Birmaher, N. Ryan, +5 authors B. Nelson
  • Published 1 November 1996
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE To qualitatively review the literature of the past decade covering the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, natural course, biology, and other correlates of early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymic disorder (DD). METHOD A computerized search for articles published during the past 10 years was made and selected studies are presented. RESULTS Early-onset MDD and DD are frequent, recurrent, and familial disorders that tend to continue into adulthood, and they are… 
Clinical presentation and course of depression in youth: does onset in childhood differ from onset in adolescence?
TLDR
In general, major depressive disorder is manifested similarly in children and adolescents, and both groups have a protracted clinical course and high family loading for psychiatric disorders.
Longitudinal Clinical Course of Early Onset DepressiveDisorders: Treatment Implications
The concept of depression in children and adolescents has a relatively short history. Until the 1970s, it was believed that depressive disorders resembling adult depression were uncommon among the
Childhood depression and adult personality disorder: alternative pathways of continuity.
TLDR
Personality disorders may represent alternative pathways of continuity for major depressive disorder and other Axis I disorders across the child-adult transition.
Minor depression in adolescence: phenomenology and clinical correlates.
TLDR
Although clearly milder condition than MDD, minor depression was associated with marked suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts, recurrences and a high degree of comorbidity, highlighting the clinical and public health significance of non-MDD depressions, e.g. minor depression, which need to be more carefully identified and treated at early age.
Children with prepubertal-onset major depressive disorder and anxiety grown up.
TLDR
There is high morbidity in clinically referred children with prepubertal-onset MDD and anxiety, but continuity and specificity of MDD or anxiety disorder in adulthood is less clear.
Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. AACAP.
  • B. Birmaher, D. Brent
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 1998
TLDR
Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been found to be beneficial for the acute treatment of youth with depressive disorders and antidepressants must be considered for those patients with psychosis, bipolar depression, severe depressions, and those who do not respond to an adequate trial of psychotherapy.
Early onset major depressive disorder.
TLDR
An overview of the clinical diagnosis and presentation, epidemiology, coexisting problems, and treatment issues of child and adolescent depressive disorders, with a focus on major depressive disorder (MDD).
Depression and allied illness in children and adolescents: Basic facts
Unipolar depression is a relatively common psychiatric condition in young people. Clinical signs and symptoms at presentation can vary with age, with children showing different characteristics to
Early Onset of Depression During Childhood and Adolescence
TLDR
Clinicians must be adept at differentiating features of the disorder from the typical patterns of sadness and irritability during these transitional years and take differences such as age, depression severity, and the presence of suicidal ideation into consideration.
Biological studies in depressed children and adolescents.
  • B. Birmaher, P. Heydl
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2001
TLDR
Further research is needed to investigate whether alteration in certain hormonal systems may be trait markers for major depressive disorder and whether these markers predict the development of new episodes of MDD, recurrences, and treatment response.
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