Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

  title={Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.},
  author={Yvonne Rafferty},
  journal={The American journal of orthopsychiatry},
  volume={83 4},
  • Y. Rafferty
  • Published 1 October 2013
  • Political Science
  • The American journal of orthopsychiatry
Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and… 
Child Trafficking for Sexual exploitation
Background International Labour Organization (ILO) guesstimates approximately 1.2 million kids are marketed on every year. Further, 21 million adults and kids are confined to force slavery. Out of
Human Trafficking & Commercial Sex Exploitation: Treatment Recommendations for an Invisible Population
Treatment recommendations are made based on a trauma-focused, relational model aimed at reinstating psychological well-being in the survivor, specifically focusing on the treatment of survivors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE).
Most of the research on the risk for minors to become victims of human trafficking or commercial sexual exploitation up till recently focused on socioeconomic, psychosocial and demographic factors.
Sex Trafficking and the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
ABSTRACT In recent years, the problem of child sex trafficking has become a topic of international discussion and concern. Child sex trafficking can include many forms of commercial sexual
Vulnerabilities Relevant for Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children/Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Risk Factors
Relevant risk factors and vulnerabilities found in this review include child abuse and maltreatment, caregiver strain, running away or being thrown away, substance use, peer influence, witnessing family violence or criminality, poverty or material need, difficulty in school, conflict with parents, poor mental health or view of self, involvement in juvenile detention or delinquency, early substance use and prior rape or adolescent sexual victimization.
From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls
  • Lara B. Gerassi
  • History
    Journal Of Human Behavior In The Social Environment
  • 2015
This article seeks to provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels.
Prevention of Child Sexual Exploitation: Insights From Adult Survivors
  • T. Hurst
  • Psychology
    Journal of interpersonal violence
  • 2019
Six themes with relevance to vulnerability to recruitment and barriers to prevention emerged after analysis, including difficulty trusting medical and mental health professionals; difficulty trusting law enforcement; protection of family members; self-destructive behaviors; and a need for CSEC awareness among at-risk youth.
Mental Health Services as a Vital Component of Psychosocial Recovery for Victims of Child Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation
  • Y. Rafferty
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of orthopsychiatry
  • 2018
Field-based qualitative research was undertaken in South and Southeast Asia and involved interviews with representatives from U.N. and governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and residential aftercare recovery programs to highlight the mental health needs of child victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation and describe the availability and quality of mental health services and supports.


The Impact of Trafficking on Children: Psychological and Social Policy Perspectives
Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) are egregious crimes, extreme forms of child maltreatment, and major violations of children's human rights. Although empirical research is
Closing the Gaps: The Need to Improve Identification and Services to Child Victims of Trafficking
Human trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labor is believed to be one of the fastest growing areas of criminal activity. The vast majority of victims of severe forms of trafficking are
International Dimensions of Discrimination and Violence against Girls: A Human Rights Perspective
Abstract In many cultures, being born female can consign the girl child to the peripheries of society where her safety is denied and her human rights are routinely violated. At each and every stage
Of Vice and Men: A New Approach to Eradicating Sex Trafficking by Reducing Male Demand through Educational Programs and Abolitionist Legislation
In the last few decades, trafficking in humans for the purpose of sexual exploitation has exploded into a sophisticated industry that generates billions of dollars in profit every year yet devastates
Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications.
  • C. Beyrer
  • Political Science
    Social science & medicine
  • 2001
Children as Chattel of the State: Deconstructing the Concept of Sex Trafficking
International human rights law protects against child prostitution and commercial child sexual trafficking. However, age of sexual consent laws in most jurisdictions permit the non-commercial sexual
Trafficking in persons is the fastest growing form of organized crime, because it is less risky than drug or arms trafficking1 and guarantees astonishing profits ranging between 8.5 and 12 billion
Children for sale: child trafficking in Southeast Asia
The paper describes the experiences of the young victims and the consequences for their physical and emotional well-being, and presents recommendations for legal and policy initiatives to cease the sale and exploitation of children.
The Sex Trade Industry's Worldwide Exploitation of Children
The twenty-first century brings with it some of the dark realities of the last century with respect to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Worldwide, untold numbers of children are being
The International Sexual Trafficking of Women and Children
The contemporary international slave trade has received little attention in the social work literature. In keeping with the profession's commitment to social justice and human rights, this article