Chickens as a simple system for scientific discovery: The example of the MHC.

  title={Chickens as a simple system for scientific discovery: The example of the MHC.},
  author={Clive A. Tregaskes and Jim Kaufman},
  journal={Molecular immunology},

Tables from this paper

New vistas unfold: Chicken MHC molecules reveal unexpected ways to present peptides to the immune system

The understanding of how MHC molecules bind and present peptides to lymphocytes will broaden considerably with further unexpected discoveries through biochemical and structural studies for chickens and other non-mammalian vertebrates.

The Diverse Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes of a Common Commercial Chicken Line and Their Effect on Marek’s Disease Virus Pathogenesis and Tumorigenesis

It is shown that VALO SPF chickens possess MHC haplotypes that include B9, B9:02, B15, B19 and B21 at various frequencies, and these haplotypes are associated to MDV-induced disease and lymphoma formation and it is found that B15 homozygotes had the lowest tumor incidence while B21 homozygoteHad the lowest number of organs with tumors.

Minor differences in peptide presentation between chicken MHC class I molecules can explain differences in disease susceptibility

It is confirmed for newly-developed chicken lines that the chicken haplotype B15 confers resistance to MD compared to B19, and the structures show that the wider and deeper peptide-binding groove of BF2*1501 allows it to tightly accept many more peptides overall, which is concordant to the expected hierarchies for expression level, thermostability and MD resistance.

Birth and Death in Terminal Complement Pathway

The study of C6 gene birth in an early vertebrate ancestor and C9 gene death in galliform birds provides insights into the evolution of the TCP.

Marek’s disease virus-specific T cells proliferate, express antiviral cytokines but have impaired degranulation response

The data demonstrate an association between type of T cell response to pp38 and resistance to the disease and will shed light on the understanding of immune response to this oncogenic herpesvirus and failure to induce sterile immunity.

Towards Tabula Gallus

  • M. Yamagata
  • Biology
    International journal of molecular sciences
  • 2022
The Tabula Gallus will generate a compendium of single-cell transcriptome data from Gallus gallus, characterize each cell type, and provide tools for the study of the biology of this species, similar to other ongoing cell atlas projects.

Zebrafish and Medaka as model organisms for climate change research: Global literature scientometric analysis

Determining how climate change affects aquatic organisms, such as fish is vital, since this could directly or indirectly impact food and protein sources that are important for human nutrition. Thus,



The Chicken MHC: Insights into Genetic Resistance, Immunity, and Inflammation Following Infectious Bronchitis Virus Infections

The importance of the chicken MHC in poultry disease resistance, particularly to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections and the role played by innate immunity and inflammation on disease outcome is summarized.

Applications of Gene Editing in Chickens: A New Era Is on the Horizon

The current and future prospects of gene editing and how it possibly contributes to the development of resistant chickens against infectious diseases are reviewed.

New Insights into the Immune System Using Dirty Mice

Major findings to date and challenges faced when using dirty mice are discussed and specific areas of immunology research that may benefit from using animals with robust and varied microbial exposure are discussed.

A “Minimal Essential Mhc” and an “Unrecognized Mhc”: Two Extremes in Selection for Polymorphism

It is believed that salamanders have classical Mhc molecules but most T cells do not recognize them, so that there is no strong selection for polymorphism, and the peptide motifs for the chicken class I molecules from a number of haplotypes are determined, which may explain some disease associations quite simply.

The chicken B locus is a minimal essential major histocompatibility complex

The small size and simplicity of the chicken MHC allows co-evolution of genes as haplotypes over considerable periods of time, and makes it possible to study the striking MHC-determined pathogen-specific disease resistance at the molecular level.

From Chickens to Humans: The Importance of Peptide Repertoires for MHC Class I Alleles

It is a question whether KIRs and ChIRs recognize class I molecule with bound peptide in a similar way, and whether fastidious to promiscuous hierarchy of class I molecules affect both T and NK cell function.

Major histocompatibility complex genomics and human disease.

Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation now permit the screening of large sample sets, a technique further facilitated by high-throughput sequencing that promise to yield more precise contributions of MHC variants to disease.

Characterization of two avian MHC-like genes reveals an ancient origin of the CD1 family.

Two highly divergent nonclassical MHC class I genes found in the chicken that have sequence homology to the mammalian CD1 family of proteins are described and suggest that the origin of CD1 extends deep into the evolutionary history of terrestrial vertebrates.

Wild-derived mice: from genetic diversity to variation in immune responses

A direct genomic comparison clearly demonstrates the evolutionary divergence that has occurred between wild-derived mice and the classical inbred strains.

Unfinished Business: Evolution of the MHC and the Adaptive Immune System of Jawed Vertebrates.

This review considers what it means to be an MHC and the potential importance of genome-wide duplication, gene linkage, and gene coevolution for the emergence and evolution of an adaptive immune system.