Chemoprophylaxis of neonatal fungal infections in very low birthweight infants: efficacy and safety of fluconazole and nystatin

@article{Blyth2012ChemoprophylaxisON,
  title={Chemoprophylaxis of neonatal fungal infections in very low birthweight infants: efficacy and safety of fluconazole and nystatin},
  author={Christopher C. Blyth and Federica Barzi and Katherine A Hale and David Isaacs},
  journal={Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health},
  year={2012},
  volume={48}
}
  • C. Blyth, F. Barzi, D. Isaacs
  • Published 1 September 2012
  • Medicine, Biology, Chemistry
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Aim:  To review the use of antifungal chemoprophylaxis to prevent neonatal invasive fungal infections (IFI) in very low birthweight infants (VLBW <1500 g). 

Oral nystatin prophylaxis to prevent systemic fungal infection in very low birth weight preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial

TLDR
Nystatin is effective and safe as an antifungal prophylactic medication in reducing colonization rates in the study population and showed a potential protective effect against SFI among VLBW preterm infants.

Current Epidemiology and Management of Invasive Candidiasis in Infants

TLDR
While available antifungal agents appear to be effective in the treatment of IC in infants, knowledge of the optimal type, dose, and duration of antifundal therapy is limited by the low number of available infant studies.

[Efficacy and safety of fluconazole in prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in very low birth weight infants: a Meta analysis].

  • X. XiaLu LinHua Zi-yu
  • Medicine, Biology
    Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • 2020
TLDR
Prophylactic fluconazole can effectively and safely prevent invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants, even at a small dose.

Invasive fungal infections in newborns and current management strategies

TLDR
Early initiation of enteral feeds with human milk, decreasing dependence on catheters and avoidance of antacids, steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics are the recommended preventive measures for invasive fungal infections in newborns.

Oral Nystatin Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Fungal Colonization in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

TLDR
Among VLBW infants, the prophylactic use of oral nystatin was correlated with favorable antifungal benefits compared with placebo or no treatment intervention and the main outcomes were the rate of fungal colonization, rate of invasive fungal infection, rates of mortality, mean length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and mean duration of antibiotic treatment.

Fluconazole Administration Leading to Anaphylactic Shock in a Preterm Newborn

TLDR
This is believed to be the first anaphylaxis case in newborns caused by fluconazole in literature and Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially fatal adverse effect occurring with intravenous flu Conazole.

Treatment of fungal infections: an update

TLDR
Future strategies to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality derived from invasive fungal infections include new echinocandins not yet approved for neonatal use and other adjuvant treatments as intravenous immunoglobulin, lactoferrin or probiotics.

Fluconazole prophylaxis against invasive candidiasis in very low and extremely low birth weight preterm neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

TLDR
Mortality was significantly decreased in a meta-analysis of studies using different fluconazole prophylaxis regimens and a significant decrease in the incidence of IC-associated mortality in ELBW infants using the same fluconzole proPHylaxis schedules.

Neonatal Bacterial and Fungal Infections

TLDR
Infections represent a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), where reported incidences range from 6% to 33% and up to 40% in neonates born before 28 weeks’ gestational age or with birth weight < 1000 g.

References

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Systemic antifungal prophylaxis for very low birthweight infants: a systematic review

Systematic review and meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials suggest that prophylactic fluconazole reduces the incidence of invasive fungal infection in very low birthweight infants.

Fungal prophylaxis in very low birth weight neonates: nystatin, fluconazole or nothing?

  • D. Isaacs
  • Medicine, Biology
    Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • 2008
TLDR
Oral nystatin prophylaxis is inexpensive, effective and nontoxic and should be used routinely for babies of birth weight less than 1500 g, with reasonable evidence that oral nyStatin is effective in preventing fungal infections and at the same time it is inexpensive and well tolerated.

Fluconazole for prophylaxis against candidal rectal colonization in the very low birth weight infant.

TLDR
Prophylactic administration of fluconazole to the VLBW infant for the first 28 days of life is safe and results in a decreased risk of rectal colonization by candidal species.

Prophylactic oral nystatin and fungal infections in very-low-birthweight infants.

TLDR
It is concluded that prophylactic administration of oral nystatin reduces fungal colonization and infection in very-low-birthweight infants.

Oral nystatin prophylaxis and neonatal fungal infections

TLDR
Antifungal prophylaxis with oral nystatin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of fungal infection compared with no prophYLaxis, and the incidence of neonatalFungal infection was low in Australia and New Zealand, even without antifungals.

Comparison of fluconazole and nystatin oral suspensions for prophylaxis of systemic fungal infection in very low birthweight infants.

TLDR
Although the results cannot justify any conclusion about the relative efficacy of fluconazole versus nystatin in prevention of SFI, the significantly higher mortality rate in the nyStatin group raises questions about therelative safety of this medication.

Selective fluconazole prophylaxis in high-risk babies to reduce invasive fungal infection

TLDR
Selective antifungal prophylaxis has reduced invasive fungal sepsis in one NICU without evidence of fluconazole resistance emerging.

Oral nystatin prophylaxis to prevent invasive candidiasis in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

TLDR
Oral nystatin prophylaxis significantly reduced the invasive candidiasis in extremely low‐birth weight (ELBW) and very low‐ Birth weight (VLBW) infants.

Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic fluconazole versus nystatin for the prevention of fungal colonisation and invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight infants

TLDR
Prophylactic nystatin and fluconazole reduce the incidence of colonisation and invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates and believe that nyStatin is an alternative to flu Conazole, because nySTatin is safe, inexpensive, well tolerated and effective.

Challenging issues in neonatal candidiasis

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  • Medicine, Biology
    Current medical research and opinion
  • 2010
TLDR
In an era of quality improvement and ‘getting to zero,’ neonatal candidiasis is ripe for evidence-based initiatives, and antifungal prophylaxis has been shown to nearly eliminate infection-related mortality.