Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Hepatic Metabolism of Designer Drugs of the Amphetamine (Ecstasy), Piperazine, and Pyrrolidinophenone Types: A Synopsis

@article{Maurer2004ChemistryPT,
  title={Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Hepatic Metabolism of Designer Drugs of the Amphetamine (Ecstasy), Piperazine, and Pyrrolidinophenone Types: A Synopsis},
  author={Hans H. Maurer and Thomas Kraemer and Dietmar Springer and Roland F. Staack},
  journal={Therapeutic Drug Monitoring},
  year={2004},
  volume={26},
  pages={127-131}
}
Abstract: Designer drugs of the amphetamine type (eg, MDMA, MDEA, MDA), of the new benzyl or phenyl piperazine type (eg, BZP, MDBP, mCPP, TFMPP, MeOPP), or of the pyrrolidinophenone type (eg, PPP, MOPPP, MDPPP, MPPP, MPHP) have gained popularity and notoriety as rave drugs. These drugs produce feelings of euphoria and energy and a desire to socialize. Although in the corresponding drug scene designer drugs have the reputation of being safe, studies in rats and primates in combination with human… 
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In recent years, besides the classic designer drugs of the amphetamine type, a series of new drug classes appeared on the illicit drugs market and gained popularity and notoriety as rave drugs.
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This paper reviews the current pharmacological and toxicological information for piperazine derivatives and also includes new ante-mortem and post-mortem blood data.
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