Chemiluminescence immunoassay: an overview.


A large number of techniques cxist though some arc more suitable than others for the measurement of a particular compound, considerations being given to its size and its concentration. Howcver, all immunoassays require two components, firstly an antibody capable of specifically binding the compound and, secondly, a tracer which permits this binding reaction to be observed. In classical radioimmunoassay (RIA) [ 11 the compound is allowed to react with an antibody, in competition with a radiolabelled antigen analogue for a limited number of antibody binding sites. T h e distribution of radiolabel between antibody bound and free fractions is a measure of the quantity of the compound present. The choice of radiolabel depends upon the compound analysed and may be internal or external. Small molecules usually employ internal labels, for example 3H in steroids and lZsI in thyroid hormones, whereas large molecules invariably utilize an external label, 12'I. Radioiodine has a sensitivity of detection approximately 1000fold that of tritium and is thus universally employed. However, in RIA systems sensitivity is not necessarily limited by the sensitivity of detection of the label but is ultimately dependent upon the equilibrium constant of the antibody-antigen

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@article{Weeks1986ChemiluminescenceIA, title={Chemiluminescence immunoassay: an overview.}, author={Ian Weeks and Michael Sturgess and J. Stuart Woodhead}, journal={Clinical science}, year={1986}, volume={70 5}, pages={403-8} }