Chemical reactions involved in the deep-fat frying of foods1

  title={Chemical reactions involved in the deep-fat frying of foods1},
  author={Stephen S. Chang and Robert J. Peterson and Chi-Tang Ho},
  journal={Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society},
Deep-fat frying is one of the most commonly used procedures for the preparation and manufacture of foods in the world. During deep-fat frying, oxidative and thermal decompositions may take place with the formation of volatile and nonvolatile decomposition products, some of which in excessive amounts are harmful to human health. A limited survey of frying fats used in commercial operations indicated that some were maintained at good quality and others were overused or abused. The volatile… 
Effect of deep-fat frying on chemical properties of edible vegetable oils used by senegalese households
  • A. Diop, S. Sarr, Diop Ym
  • Medicine
    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
  • 2014
In Senegalese culinary practices where frying oil is often re - used in families with low -income, such a situation may lead to significant sanitary risks and investigations need to be extended to other types of oil marketed in Senegal.
Chemical and biological properties related to toxicity of heated fats.
  • J. C. Alexander
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Journal of toxicology and environmental health
  • 1981
Experimental findings indicate that any potential danger to the consumer is relative to the severity of the overall treatment of the fat, and a concerted effort should be made to minimize substantial accumulation of these in the authors' dietary fats.
The changes in the volatile aldehydes formed during the deep-fat frying process
The results showed that relative amounts of the most detected VAs were firstly increased to maximum values in oil samples collected at the second hour of the seventh day and the values were then decreased with the increase in the time of oil heating process (control).
Nonvolatile components produced in triolein during deep-fat frying
Triolein was heated at 190°C (375°F) in a deep-fat fryer for 12 h/day until high-performance size-exclusion chromatography indicated polymer formation had exceeded 20%. Increases in the free fatty
Linoleic acid hydroperoxide concentration in relation to mutagenicity of repeatedly used deep-frying fats
It is suggested that metabolites or secondary autoxidation products of linoleic acid generated in presence of liver S9 mix may contribute to mutagenicity of some of the used deep-frying fat samples.
Utilization of high‐oleic rapeseed oil for deep‐fat frying of French fries compared to other commonly used edible oils
Changes in chemical, physical and sensory parameters of high-oleic rapeseed oil (HORO) (NATREON™) during 72 h of deep-fat frying of potatoes were compared with those of commonly used frying oils,
By-Products Formed in Heated Fats
Since the beginning of times man heated his food to modify its flavor or texture, or to keep it from spoiling. With the exception of fresh fruits and vegetables, most of the food we eat today has
Deep-fried flavor: characteristics, formation mechanisms, and influencing factors
This article critically reviews deep-fried flavor deriving from lipid oxidation, Maillard reaction, hydrolysis and amino acid degradation, with a special emphasis to discuss the involvement of lipid oxidation products in the Maillard pathway to form fried volatiles via secondary processes.


Chemical reactions involved in deep fat frying of foods: VI. Characterization of nonvolatile decomposition products of trilinolein
A laboratory apparatus that could be used to treat pure triglycerides under simulated deep fat frying conditions was designed and built and the volatile decomposition products produced during frying could be quantitatively collected at the same time.
Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of foods. I. A laboratory apparatus for frying under simulated restaurant conditions
A laboratory apparatus has been designed which can be used to quantitatively collect the volatile decomposition products produced during deep fat frying under simulated restaurant conditions and part of the degradation products, particularly those of higher boiling points, were found to remain in the frying oil.
Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of foods. II. Identification of acidic volatile decomposition products of corn oil
Chemical identification of the volatile decomposition products (VDP) produced by fats and oils under conditions of deep fat frying is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of thermal
Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of foods: IV. Identification of acidic volatile decomposition products of hydrogenated cottonseed oil
The acidic volatile decomposition products (VDP) produced by a hydrogenated cottonseed oil maintained at 185C with periodic frying of moist cotton balls and with periodic additon of fresh fat to
Composition and control of potato chip frying oils in continuing commercial use
SummaryThe oils in use on a continuing commercial basis in the production of potato chips on a nation-wide scale are found to be free of thermal polymers. This conclusion is supported by the
Influence of feeding fractionated esters of autoxidized lard and cottonseed oil on growth, thirst, organ weights, and liver lipids of rats
SummaryLard and cottonseed oil which had been autoxidized at about 100°C. for 210 hrs. were fractionated by a technique involving molecular distillation, conversion to ethyl esters, urea-complex
The effect of heated fat on the carcinogenic activity of 2-acetylaminofluorene.
The results indicated that the lipase-undigestible or the nonurea adduct-forming fraction isolated from heated oil acted in synergism with AAF and enhanced its carcinogenic activity.
Correlation of gas chromatographic profiles and organoleptic scores of different fats and oils after simulated deep fat frying
Five oils and a fat were subjected to simulated deep fat frying using moist cotton balls. The used oils were evaluated by an expert organoleptic panel. Statistically significant differences were
A nutritive evaluation of over-heated fats
According to the tests used, harmful substances do not occur in fried foods or in fats used in preparing foods. It is possible to obtain biologically undesirable materials by excessively heating