Chemical models of epilepsy with some reference to their applicability in the development of anticonvulsants.

@article{Deyn1992ChemicalMO,
  title={Chemical models of epilepsy with some reference to their applicability in the development of anticonvulsants.},
  author={Peter Paul De Deyn and Rudi D'hooge and Bart Marescau and Yijin Pei},
  journal={Epilepsy research},
  year={1992},
  volume={12 2},
  pages={87-110}
}
This paper reviews chemical models of epilepsy and their relevance in the identification and characterization of anticonvulsants. For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration, clinical type(s) of seizures induced, proposed mechanism(s) of epileptogenesis and, where available, responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants. The following compounds are reviewed: pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, penicillin, picrotoxin, beta-carbolines, 3-mercaptopropionic acid… CONTINUE READING

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The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
This paper reviews chemical models of epilepsy and their relevance in the identification and characterization of anticonvulsants .
Chemical models of epilepsy with some reference to their applicability in the development of anticonvulsants .
Although there are a multitude of chemical models of epilepsy , only a limited number are applied in the routine screening of potential anticonvulsants .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
Chemical models of epilepsy with some reference to their applicability in the development of anticonvulsants .
This paper reviews chemical models of epilepsy and their relevance in the identification and characterization of anticonvulsants .
Although there are a multitude of chemical models of epilepsy , only a limited number are applied in the routine screening of potential anticonvulsants .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
MetalsNo subtypeCobalt
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
For each convulsant we discuss possible modes of administration , clinical type(s ) of seizures induced , proposed mechanism(s ) of epileptogenesis and , where available , responsiveness of the induced seizures to anticonvulsants .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
The following compounds are reviewed : pentylenetetrazol , bicuculline , penicillin , picrotoxin , beta - carbolines , 3-mercaptopropionic acid , hydrazides , allylglycine ; the glycine antagonist strychnine ; gamma - hydroxybutyrate ; excitatory amino acids ( glutamate , aspartate , N - methyl - D - aspartate , quisqualate , kainate , quinolinic acid ) ; monosubstituted guanidino compounds , metals ( alumina , cobalt , zinc , iron ) ; neuropeptides ( opioid peptides , corticotropin releasing factor , somatostatin , vasopressin ) ; cholinergic agents ( acetylcholine , acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , pilocarpine ) ; tetanus toxin ; flurothyl ; folates ; homocysteine and colchicine .
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