Chemical investigations of wolf (Canis lupus) anal-sac secretion in relation to breeding season

  title={Chemical investigations of wolf (Canis lupus) anal-sac secretion in relation to breeding season},
  author={J. Raymer and Donald Wiesler and Milos V. Novotny and Cheryl S. Asa and Ulysses S. Seal and L. David Mech},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
The volatile constituents of wolf anal-sac secretions were examined via capillary gas chromatography and compared among intact males, females, castrate males, ovariectomized females, and anosmic and pinealectomized males and females. Some chemical compounds were deemed significantly different (t test, 95% confidence level) among the groups both during and outside of the mating season, implying that the volatile components of anal-sac secretion can be used to communicate information regarding… 

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