Chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus

  title={Chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus},
  author={Vladimir A. Krasnopolsky and V. A. Parshev},
Measurements onboard the Venera 11, 12 (refs 1–4) and Pioneer Venus5,6 spacecrafts stimulated us to study the chemical composition of the subcloud atmosphere of Venus in terms of the thermochemical equilibrium calculations, comparison of typical mixing and chemical times and a rule of height-independent element mixing ratio in the absence of condensation7. The photochemistry of the atmosphere down to 50 km was calculated using transport effects and number densities of CO2, H2O, HCl, SO2 and CO… 
Composition and Chemistry of the Neutral Atmosphere of Venus
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We review here observations and models related to the chemical and thermal structures, airglow and auroral emissions and dynamics of the Venus thermosphere, and compare empirical models of the
Atmospheric Composition, Chemistry, and Clouds
Venus’ atmosphere has a rich chemistry involving interactions among sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen radicals. The chemical regimes in the atmosphere range from ion-neutral
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Physico-chemical modeling of the atmospheric-lithospheric interaction on Venus is presented. The thermodynamic assessment is carried out in terms of Venera 11 and 12 and Pioneer Venus measurements
Spectroscopy and Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres and Ionospheres
Galileo orbiter and probe. The probe studied the Jupiter environment down to a pressure of 23 bar, where temperature was equal to 426 K. (The fi rst Venus probe Venera 4 operated in 1967 down to 22
C and C+ in the Venusian thermosphere/ionosphere
[1] We have constructed standard low and high solar activity models of the Venus thermosphere, which take into account revised rate coefficients for production and loss processes for C and C+,


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Data from the Pioneer Venus sounder probe neutral mass spectrometer confirm that the major constituents of the lower atmosphere of Venus are CO2 and N2, with the latter having a mass abundance of
Photochemistry of SO2 in Venus' upper cloud layers
A model is presented for the distribution of photochemically active gases in and above the upper cloud layer of Venus. Attention is focused on reproducing the experimental results of the Pioneer
Venus Upper Atmosphere Neutral Composition: Preliminary Results from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter
Measurements in situ of the neutral composition and temperature of the thermosphere of Venus are being made with a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter, with O/CO2 ratios in the upper atmosphere being greater than was commonly expected.
Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere: Distribution and implications
The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer sees variable disk brightness features similar to the well-known "UV markings" seen at longer wavelengths. The bright features are consistent with a
Venus - Chemical and dynamical processes in the stratosphere and mesosphere
  • R. Prinn
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • 1975
Abstract Photochemical models for the Venus clouds are presented and discussed. We illustrate models for sulfuric acid density as a function of altitude based on a proposed photochemical scheme.
Composition and Structure of the Venus Atmosphere: Results from Pioneer Venus
There is a large excess of all primordial noble gases on Venus relative to Earth, and there appears to be a considerably higher abundance of sulfur compounds below 20 kilometers than in or above the main cloud layer.
Venus Upper Atmosphere Neutral Gas Composition: First Observations of the Diurnal Variations
Measurements of the composition, temperature, and diurnal variations of the major neutral constituents in the thermosphere of Venus are being made with a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Pioneer
The upper atmosphere of Venus during morning conditions
The structure and composition of the Venus upper atmosphere between 130- and 650-km altitude were measured for a solar zenith angle of approximately 60° by the neutral gas mass spectrometer on board
Venus Lower Atmospheric Composition: Analysis by Gas Chromatography
A comparison of the inventory of inert gases found in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars suggests that these components are due to outgassing from the planetary interiors.