Chemical composition of epicuticular wax crystals on the slippery zone in pitchers of five Nepenthes species and hybrids

@article{Riedel2006ChemicalCO,
  title={Chemical composition of epicuticular wax crystals on the slippery zone in pitchers of five Nepenthes species and hybrids},
  author={Michael Riedel and Anna Eichner and Harald Meimberg and Reinhard Jetter},
  journal={Planta},
  year={2006},
  volume={225},
  pages={1517-1534}
}
Plants of the carnivorous genus Nepenthes efficiently trap insects in leaf pitchers, mostly employing epicuticular wax crystals on the pitcher walls to make them slippery for the prey. In the present study, the compositions and micromorphologies of the wax crystals of five Nepenthes species and hybrids were analysed in order to test whether the chemical principles underlying this ecological function are widespread within the genus. Three wax layers could be distinguished within the Nepenthes… Expand
Composition of the epicuticular waxes coating the adaxial side of Phyllostachys aurea leaves: Identification of very-long-chain primary amides.
TLDR
Alkyl esters, alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes were found in greater amounts in the epicuticular layer, while primary alcohols and most terpenoids accumulated more in the intracuticular wax. Expand
Chemical composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on adaxial sides of Rosa canina leaves.
TLDR
A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves and this gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. Expand
Adaptive significance and ontogenetic variability of the waxy zone in Nepenthes rafflesiana.
TLDR
The waxy zone is not always a key trapping structure in Nepenthes and can be lost when supplanted by more efficient features, and that evolutionary changes in developmental mechanisms could play a role in the morphological diversity of Nepenthers. Expand
Composition differences between epicuticular and intracuticular wax substructures: how do plants seal their epidermal surfaces?
TLDR
A first synthesis of the results acquired for all the species investigated to date in order to assign chemical information directly to cuticle substructures is provided, together with an overview of the methods used and a discussion of possible mechanisms and biological functions. Expand
Diversity of the slippery zone microstructure in pitchers of nine carnivorous Nepenthes taxa
TLDR
Two main types of pitchers in Nepenthes are proposed: (a) traps based predominantly on the waxy slippery zone and (b) peristome-based traps. Expand
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that microscopic roughness alone is sufficient to minimize insect attachment and a theoretical model shows that surface roughness within a certain length scale will prevent adhesion by being too rough for adhesive pads but not rough enough for claws. Expand
Composite structure and properties of the pitcher surface of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes and its influence on the insect attachment system
TLDR
The potential application of the pitcher surface being utilized in bionics to manufacture insect slippery trapping plates is discussed, and the original research direction of the pitchers surface and its application on agricultural pest control is highlighted. Expand
Development and regeneration ability of the wax coverage in Nepenthes alata pitchers: a cryo-SEM approach
TLDR
It is found that wax crystals of both layers as well as the stalks connecting them are oriented perpendicularly to the pitcher wall, indicating that the wax coverage in N. alata pitchers is unable to regenerate. Expand
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE EPICUTICULAR WAXE OF TWO BREED WHEAT CULTIVARS
TLDR
The evaluation of the epicuticular waxes and the molecular arrangement within the crystals were studied on biological and non-biological surfaces from wax platelets of leaves blades of two wheat cultivars: Inia66 and Uruq to reveal differences between two cultivars. Expand
Slippery or sticky? Functional diversity in the trapping strategy of Nepenthes carnivorous plants.
TLDR
Investigating whether Nepenthes species exhibit diverse trapping strategies and measuring the amount of slippery wax on the pitcher walls of 23 taxa and the viscoelasticity of their digestive liquid and compared their retention efficiency on ants and flies suggested the possibility of an investment trade-off for the plants. Expand
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TLDR
Solubility data indicate that the Nepenthes crystals contained polymeric forms of this aldehyde, and the resulting mechanical properties of the polymer crystals and the mechanism of slipperiness are discussed. Expand
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The slippery zone situated below the peristome inside pitchers of most carnivorous plants from the genus Nepenthes is covered with a thick layer of epicuticular wax, which is reported to play a crucial role in animal trapping and prey retention. Expand
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The pitchers of the tropical carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata are highly specialized organs for the attraction and capture of insects and absorption of nutrients from them. This study examined theExpand
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