Melicope denhamii leaf volatile oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and twenty-six constituents comprising 95.95% of the leaf oil were characterised by gas chromatographic techniques. Sesquiterpenes, zierone (22.49%) and α-gurjunene (19.96%), were identified as the major components. M. denhamii leaf oil tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed significant activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Anticancer activity of M. denhamii leaf oil against Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays, and the oil showed significant cytotoxicity at CD50 of 12.2 μg/mL. Induction of apoptosis on DLA cells by M. denhamii leaf oil was confirmed by morphological observation, nuclear damage and comet assays.