Deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A (“hidden hunger”) afflict over three billion people. Currently there is an increasing preference among consumers for foods that contain not only traditional nutrients but also provide other compounds that are beneficial to health and well-being. Food systems that feed the world must be changed in ways that will insure that balanced nutrient supplies are available continuously to all people in adequate, affordable amounts. This paper reviews about the most important wheat grain components and their nutritional value. The opportunities of plant breeding and other technologies to improve the nutritional quality of wheat are also discussed.