Chemical characterization of a family of brain lipids that induce sleep.

  title={Chemical characterization of a family of brain lipids that induce sleep.},
  author={Benjamin F. Cravatt and Oscar E Prospero-Garcia and Gary Siuzdak and Norton B. Gilula and Steven J. Henriksen and Dale L. Boger and Richard A. Lerner},
  volume={268 5216},
A molecule isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats has been chemically characterized and identified as cis-9,10-octadecenoamide. Other fatty acid primary amides in addition to cis-9,10-octadecenoamide were identified as natural constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid of cat, rat, and human, indicating that these compounds compose a distinct family of brain lipids. Synthetic cis-9,10-octadecenoamide induced physiological sleep when injected into rats. Together, these results… 
The sleep inducing factor oleamide is produced by mouse neuroblastoma cells.
It is shown for the first time that oleamide is produced by a neuronal cell type and that its biosynthesis in intact neurons is not likely to occur through the direct condensation of oleic acid and ammonia.
Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel amides of polyunsaturated fatty acids with dopamine.
Identification of an unusual naturally occurring apolar fatty acid amide in mammalian brain and a method for its quantitative determination.
Evidence is provided of the occurrence in mouse and bovine brain extracts of a compound characterised by a mass spectrum attributable to a FAA not previously described, namely, the isopropyl-amide of stearic acid (SIPA), which shows surprisingly that SIPA may be found naturally in mammalian biological extracts.


Cerebrodiene: a brain lipid isolated from sleep-deprived cats.
We report the isolation of a heretofore unrecognized brain lipid that is present in cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats. The molecule appears to be a long-chain base structurally related to
Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor.
Arachidonylethanolamide, an arachidonic acid derivative in porcine brain, was identified in a screen for endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptor. The structure of this compound, which has
Enzymatic synthesis of anandamide, an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor, by brain membranes.
  • W. DevaneJ. Axelrod
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
The ability of brain tissue to enzymatically synthesize anandamide and the existence of specific receptors for this eicosanoid suggest the presence of an andamide-containing (anandaergic) neurons.
Characterization, properties and multivariate functions of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP).
From 1963 to 1970 the possibility of humoral transmission of delta (SWS)-EEG sleep in rabbits by, i.c.v. infusion of extracorporal dialysate from blood of the sinus confluens of donors kept asleep by
The biosynthesis of neuropeptides: peptide alpha-amidation.
This review focuses on one of the steps in peptide biosynthesis, peptide a-amidation, and summarizes information obtained primarily over the past few years, because several previous reviews comprehensively cover earlier work on peptide IY.
Isolation of fatty acid amide as an angiogenic principle from bovine mesentery.