The discovery of a Byzantine church under the floor of one of the oldest churches of Salerno (Italy) has given us the opportunity to investigate the fine composition of the plaster through chemical and spectroscopic methods. In particular, considering that plasters are generally formed by a carbonate phase (carbonates) and an inert phase (silicates), the characterization, performed on the carbonate phase by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), has revealed the presence of dolomite minerals. This information indicates that, during the building process, some accessory minerals of marble were added in the mortar to be used like fillers. The carbonate phase makes too difficult the spectroscopic characterization of the inert phase. Only by acid attack of the plaster the inert phase has been isolated and its characterization, by XRD and optical microscopy, has indicated the presence of olivine minerals and other typical silicates of river sands.