Chemical Defense in Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): Do Benzoquinone Secretions Deter Invertebrate and Vertebrate Predators?

  title={Chemical Defense in Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): Do Benzoquinone Secretions Deter Invertebrate and Vertebrate Predators?},
  author={Glauco B. O. Machado and Patricia C. Carrera and Armando Mateus Pomini and Anita J. Marsaioli},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
Two alkylated 1,4-benzoquinones were identified from the defensive secretion produced by the neotropical harvestman Goniosoma longipes (Gonyleptidae). They were characterized as 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-ethyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. We tested the effectiveness of these benzoquinone secretions against several predator types, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Different predators were exposed to the harvestmen's gland secretion or to distilled water in laboratory bioassays… 

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Hydroxy-γ-lactones represent a new class of exocrine defense compounds in harvestmen and are characterized by GC-MS of their microreaction derivatives, HRMS, and NMR.



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The opilionid Acanthopachylus aculeatus was shown to produce a defensive secretion containing quinones, confirming the findings reported nearly a half century ago in a classic study, and may contain distasteful factors besides its glandular products.

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Chemical Defense in the Stink Bug Cosmopepla bimaculata

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