Chemical Composition of Inks of Diverse Marine Molluscs Suggests Convergent Chemical Defenses

@article{Derby2007ChemicalCO,
  title={Chemical Composition of Inks of Diverse Marine Molluscs Suggests Convergent Chemical Defenses},
  author={Charles D Derby and Cynthia E. Kicklighter and P. M. Johnson and Xu Zhang},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2007},
  volume={33},
  pages={1105-1113}
}
Some marine molluscs, notably sea hares, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus, release ink when attacked by predators. The sea hare Aplysia californica releases secretions from the ink gland and opaline gland that protect individuals from injury or death from predatory spiny lobsters through a combination of mechanisms that include chemical deterrence, sensory disruption, and phagomimicry. The latter two mechanisms are facilitated by millimolar concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) in sea hare ink… Expand
Effects of Sea Hare Ink Secretion and Its Escapin-Generated Components on a Variety of Predatory Fishes
TLDR
It is shown that ink but not opaline significantly decreases the palatability of food for all five species, and that escapin products are mildly unpalatable to the two species of wrasses but not to the other species. Expand
Responses of the sea catfish Ariopsis felis to chemical defenses from the sea hare Aplysia californica
TLDR
The results support the idea that sea hares are chemically defended from predatory sea catfish largely through unpalatable chemical deterrents in ink, but possibly also through amino acids stimulating olfactory and gustatory systems and thus functioning through phagomimicry or sensory disruption. Expand
Escape by Inking and Secreting: Marine Molluscs Avoid Predators Through a Rich Array of Chemicals and Mechanisms
  • C. Derby
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Biological Bulletin
  • 2007
TLDR
This review focuses on recent work on mechanisms of defense by inking in sea hare (Aplysia) and extends what has learned about sea hares to other molluscs including the cephalopods. Expand
Caribbean reef squid, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, use ink as a defense against predatory French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum
TLDR
The hypothesis that squid use ink as a defense against attacks by predatory fish is tested by performing three sets of experiments to examine the behavior of juvenile French grunts toward ink from Caribbean reef squid, and results are presented suggesting that ink is not a phagomimic. Expand
Molecular identification of alarm cues in the defensive secretions of the sea hare Aplysia californica
TLDR
The specificity of the alarm response of Aplysia californica was examined, including identifying the molecules mediating it, and the alarm cues in ink were isolated and identified as the base uracil and the nucleosides uridine and cytidine. Expand
Chemical defenses of Aplysia californica and sensory processing by predatory fishes
TLDR
This dissertation argues that the study of chemical defenses allows for more questions about detection of relevant deterrents and interactions between predators and prey at the individual and population levels, and lays the foundation for how a diet-derived photopigment is adapted by a species to protect itself from predators by stimulating their chemosensory systems. Expand
Ink From Longfin Inshore Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, as a Chemical and Visual Defense Against Two Predatory Fishes, Summer Flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and Sea Catfish, Ariopsis felis
TLDR
This work finds that ink from longfin inshore squid affected the approach phase of predation by summer flounder, primarily through its visual effects, and provides the basis for a comparative approach to identify deterrent molecules from inking cephalopods and to examine neural mechanisms whereby these chemicals affect behavior of fish, using the sea catfish as a chemosensory model. Expand
Defense through sensory inactivation: sea hare ink reduces sensory and motor responses of spiny lobsters to food odors
TLDR
Results indicate that opaline reduces the output of chemosensors by physically blocking reception of and response to food odors, and this has an impact on motor responses of lobsters. Expand
Ink secretion protects sea hares by acting on the olfactory and nonolfactory chemical senses of a predatory fish
TLDR
Inactivating the olfactory sense of fish through nares occlusion eliminated the deterrent effect of ink on food capture but not the effect of Ink on food acceptance, thus showing that olfaction mediates responses to deterrents during the capture phase of feeding and that nonolfactory chemical senses mediate responses to detergent responses during the acceptance phase. Expand
Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions and Applications
  • C. Derby
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Marine drugs
  • 2014
TLDR
This review summarizes the current knowledge of cephalopod ink and discusses the chemical components of ink, with a focus on the best known of these—melanin and the biochemical pathways involved in its production. Expand
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