Chemical Coding of Behavior in the Brain

  title={Chemical Coding of Behavior in the Brain},
  author={Neal E. Miller},
  pages={328 - 338}
  • N. Miller
  • Published 16 April 1965
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Science
Distinctive patterns of behavior can be elicited by directly stimulating the brain with substances that are normally found in it, or with synthetic compounds resembling these substances. Recent research shows that the response elicited depends on both the site stimulated and the type of chemical used. Compounds of different classes, applied via the same cannula to exactly the same site in the brain, can elicit different kinds of behavior, or opposite effects on the same kind of behavior. This… 
Steroid hormones and the chemistry of behavior.
  • B. McEwen
  • Biology
    Advances in behavioral biology
  • 1972
The subject of this chapter is the regional distribution of proteins which stereospecifically bind steroid hormones in a manner that strongly suggests that the hormone is influencing the activity of the genome in the cell nucleus and thereby influencing neural processes underlying behavior.
Functional dissociation within hippocampus.
The Psychopharmacology of Feeding
The advent of a simple technique for injecting drugs into the brain through implanted cannulas and the realization that the local application of drugs could have meaningful behavioral effects has precipitated a great change in the neuroscientist’s approach and thinking.
The chemical nature of the hypothalamocortical activation underlying drinking behavior
The drinking behavior of cats which appears on the basis of centrally created thirst motivation reflects the activity of a primary dominant focus in the hypothalamus and of a secondary dominantfocus in the sensorimotor cortex.
Cholinergic system in behavior: the search for mechanisms of action.
  • R. Russell
  • Biology
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 1982
The present review is concerned with examining speculative ideas and hypqtheses about Mechanisms of action by which the cholinergic neuro­ transmitter system may be involved in the behavior of living organisms as they cope with changes in their external and internal environments.
Intrahippocampal injection of chemicals: analysis of spread.


Chemical and electrical stimulation of hippocampus in unrestrained animals. II. Behavioral findings.
  • P. Maclean
  • Biology
    A.M.A. archives of neurology and psychiatry
  • 1957
The present study deals with the results of electrical and chemical stimulation of an intermediate segment of the hippocampus in the cat and finds that this segment receives overlapping afferents from the angular bundle and the cingulum.
The action of acetylcholine in the supraoptic nucleus of the chloralosed dog
  • M. Pickford
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of physiology
  • 1947
In an earlier paper (Pickford, 1939) experiments were described in which it was shown that acetylcholine given intravenously to the normal unanaesthetized dog during the course of a water diureis resulted in a temporary inhibition of the diuresis, and it was concluded that this inhibition was caused by the action of ACh.
One microliter of various concentrations of carbachol or norepinephrine was injected via a chronic cannula into the "feeding-drinking" area of the hypothalamus of satiated rats, which elicited less drinking, some lethargy, and then convulsions.
The effect of injections of hypertonic NaCl-solutions into different parts of the hypothalamus of goats.
Summary. In goats intrahypothalamic injections of hypertonic NaCl-solutions, within a region medially in the vicinity of the third ventricle, induced drinking of the animals. The most obvious
Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake in Rats and Cats *
The present investigation was undertaken as an attempt to localize in the hypothalamus the areas the destruction of which leads to diminution or failure of eating with emaciation, as destruction of certain other areas leads to overeating and obesity.
Cholinergic Tracing of a Central Neural Circuit Underlying the Thirst Drive
It is postulated that a generalized Papez circuit mediates the thirst drive, that the circuit is specifically and functionally sensitive to cholinergic action, and that other primary drives depend on closely parallel neural circuits partitioned both structurally and biochemically.
The activation of sexual behaviour by hypothalamic implants of oestrogen
It has been shown that the presence of the genital tract itself is not necessary for the manifestation of sexual behaviour, and neither the distance receptors nor any one modality of sensation is essential for the expression of sexual excitement, although all may contribute to it.
Eating or Drinking Elicited by Direct Adrenergic or Cholinergic Stimulation of Hypothalamus
A double cannula system, allowing repeated stimulation of central structures with crystalline chemicals, was developed to study the effects of adrenergic and cholinergic stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus of rats.
Lateral Hypothalamic Lesions: Effects on Drinking Elicited by Carbachol in Preoptic Area and Posterior Hypothalamus
Lateral hypothalamic lesions in rats caused a pronounced depression of drinking in response to injections ofcarbachol into the preoptic area or the posterior hypothalamus, and there was little, if any, recovery of drinking induced by carbachol.