Chemical Biodiversity and Bioactivities of Saponins in Echinodermata with an Emphasis on Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)

  title={Chemical Biodiversity and Bioactivities of Saponins in Echinodermata with an Emphasis on Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)},
  author={Elham Kamyab and Matthias Y. Kellermann and Andreas Kunzmann and Peter J. Schupp},
  journal={YOUMARES 9 - The Oceans: Our Research, Our Future},
Echinoderms are a source of a broad range of secondary metabolites with a large variety of bioactive properties. Although pigment and lipid derivatives are the major groups of bioactive compounds found in crinoids and ophiuroids, saponins represent the most abundant and diverse marine natural products (MNPs) in the phylum Echinodermata. This review is for researchers that are interested in MNPs derived from echinoderms, but with a particular focus on the structural diversity and biological… 
Sulfated Triterpene Glycosides from the Saudi Red Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra with Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities
The bioactive constituents of sea cucumber Holothuria atra were investigated, and four sulfated holostan-type triterpene glycosides (1–4) along with other seven know metabolites were obtained. On the
Chemical Defense Mechanisms and Ecological Implications of Indo-Pacific Holothurians
This study investigates the presence and absence of chemical defenses of 14 different sea cucumber species from three families against ecological factors such as predation and pathogenic attacks and concludes that the chemical and morphological defense mechanisms differ among the ecological strategies of the investigated holothurian species.
Characteristics of bioactive compounds of Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1833) associated bacteria
GC-MS analysis found methyl hexadecanoate/methyl palmitate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) -1,2-benzene dicarboxylate, 9-octadecenal, glycerol-1,3-dihexadecanoates and diisooctyl-1-2-bondylate in sea cucumber intestineassociated bacteria, which were found to have antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria.
Current Knowledge on the Biology, Ecology, and Commercial Exploitation of the Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa
This comprehensive synthesis, including 10 theses, 197 scientific papers and 47 reports, aims to provide a framework for future research by highlighting areas of concern for academic studies, fishery management, and aquaculture of cold-water sea cucumber species.
Ten-Year Research Update Review: Antiviral Activities from Marine Organisms
This review gives an overview of the marine-derived compounds discovered in the last 10 years and highlights the need to further invest in this field in order to shed light on marine compound potentiality and discover new drugs from the sea.
Development and Interrogation of a Transcriptomic Resource for the Giant Triton Snail (Charonia tritonis)
A reference C. tritonis transcriptome derived from developmental stages (embryo and veliger) and adult tissues is established and genes associated with cell signalling, such as neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), involved in endocrine and olfactory signalling are identified.
The power of heteronemin in cancers
The potential of heteronemin in managing different types of cancers that may lead to its clinical development as an anticancer agent is outlined and computational molecular modeling is utilized to explain how these ligands interacted with the integrin αvβ3 receptors.
Review Article: Wound healing by functional compounds of Echinodermata, Spirulina and chitin products: A review
According to studies, Seaderived products may increase proinflammatory factors and inhibit inflammatory factors, thereby enhancing wound healing, and increase the production of cytokines in wound sites, which cleanse the wound and prevent infection.
Triterpene Tetraglycosides From Stichopus Herrmanni Semper, 1868
Using various column chromatographic methods, 5 triterpene tetraglycosides (1−5), including one new compound, namely holothurin A6 (1), were obtained from the water soluble part of the methanol


Review of saponin diversity in sea cucumbers belonging to the family Holothuriidae
All of the data combined indicate a complex chemical defence mechanism with different sets of saponins originating from different body compartments and presenting different properties in relation to their ecological role(s).
Structural studies on chemical constituents of echinoderms
Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers.
Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades
The structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships are highlighted; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds.
Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties
Understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities are updated and summarized.
Qualitative and Quantitative Saponin Contents in Five Sea Cucumbers from the Indian Ocean
Comparisons between species and between body compartments give some clues about how saponin molecules may act as predator repellents.
Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii. II. Structure and Biological Action of Cladolosides A1-A6
Six new triterpene glycosides, cladolosides A1–A6 (1–6), have been isolated from the Vietnamese sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii and demonstrated rather strong cytotoxic and hemolytic effects.
Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni
At least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties.