Checkpoint inhibitors: the new treatment paradigm for urothelial bladder cancer

  title={Checkpoint inhibitors: the new treatment paradigm for urothelial bladder cancer},
  author={Heather Katz and Emnet A. Wassie and M. Alsharedi},
  journal={Medical Oncology},
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy involving the genitourinary system (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin, 66:7–30, 2016). In the USA, it is the fifth most common cancer and approximately 79,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2017 (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin, 66:7–30, 2016). The mortality from bladder cancer is approximately 17,000 deaths each year (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin, 66:7–30, 2016). The incidence rate for bladder cancer is higher in men compared to women. Risk… 
Precision medicine for urothelial bladder cancer: update on tumour genomics and immunotherapy
Several immune checkpoint inhibitors that target programmed cell death protein 1, its ligand PDL1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) have already been approved for use in bladder cancer, representing the most important change to the urological oncologist's tool-kit in over a decade.
The Impact of Immune Checkpoint-Inhibitors Therapy in Urinary Bladder Cancer
This review addresses the correlation between inflammation, tumor microenvironment, and cancer; various studies regarding immune checkpoint inhibitors, either in monotherapy or in combination therapy, are also addressed.
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Cancer cell and immune cell metabolism are discussed and the potential therapeutic targets within these processes are considered, including integrating the targeting of tumour metabolism into immunotherapy design seems a rational approach to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs.
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Early on-treatment reduction in ctDNA VAF may be a useful predictor of long-term benefit from immunotherapy, and the value of utilizing early changes in cTDNA for therapeutic decision making by identifying nonresponders to checkpoint inhibitor monotherapies and guiding combination therapies should be validated.
Medical oncology referral and systemic therapy of patients with advanced stage urothelial carcinoma.
Older patients or those with a first UC-related encounter with a PCP are less likely to be referred to medical oncology, and social determinants, including race and marital status, are relevant predictors of receiving chemotherapy.
Pegylated Recombinant Human Arginase 1 Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis via the ROS-Activated AKT/mTOR Pathway in Bladder Cancer Cells
Recombinant human arginase (rhArg, BCT-100), a novel agent with great anticancer effects on arginine-auxotrophic tumors, was demonstrated to induce autophagy and apoptosis via the ROS-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells.
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The potential of using bladder cancer as a model to investigate cancer immune response mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches, which may be translated into immunotherapy of other human cancers, is explored.
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The immunotherapy revolution in genitourinary malignancies.
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Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions
The recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens represents a significant milestone in this disease.
Immunotherapy for Patients with Advanced Urothelial Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives
The rationale for the use of immunotherapy in bladder cancer is described, recent and ongoing clinical trials with checkpoint inhibitors and other novel immunotherapy agents are discussed and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies are discussed.
Pembrolizumab as Second‐Line Therapy for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma
Pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer overall survival and with a lower rate of treatment‐related adverse events than chemotherapy as second‐line therapy for platinum‐refractory advanced urothelial carcinoma.
Pembrolizumab as first-line therapy in cisplatin-ineligible advanced urothelial cancer: Results from the total KEYNOTE-052 study population.
First-line pembrolizumab (pembro) had antitumor activity and acceptable safety in this pt population suggested in the phase 2, open-label KEYNOTE-052 study.
Avelumab in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: Pooled results from two cohorts of the phase 1b JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial.
A planned interim pooled analysis of 2 cohorts from a large phase 1b trial of avelumab with promising efficacy and safety in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma is reported.
Safety and Efficacy of Durvalumab (MEDI4736), an Anti-Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Urothelial Bladder Cancer.
  • C. Massard, M. Gordon, N. Segal
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 2016
Durvalumab demonstrated a manageable safety profile and evidence of meaningful clinical activity in PD-L1-positive patients with UBC, many of whom were heavily pretreated.