Checkers is solved.

@article{Schaeffer2007CheckersIS,
  title={Checkers is solved.},
  author={Jonathan Schaeffer and Neil Burch and Yngvi Bj{\"o}rnsson and Akihiro Kishimoto and Martin M{\"u}ller and Robert Lake and Paul Lu and Steve Sutphen},
  journal={Science},
  year={2007},
  volume={317 5844},
  pages={
          1518-22
        }
}
The game of checkers has roughly 500 billion billion possible positions (5 x 10(20)). The task of solving the game, determining the final result in a game with no mistakes made by either player, is daunting. Since 1989, almost continuously, dozens of computers have been working on solving checkers, applying state-of-the-art artificial intelligence techniques to the proving process. This paper announces that checkers is now solved: Perfect play by both sides leads to a draw. This is the most… CONTINUE READING
Highly Influential
This paper has highly influenced 13 other papers. REVIEW HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL CITATIONS
Highly Cited
This paper has 316 citations. REVIEW CITATIONS
Tweets
This paper has been referenced on Twitter 15 times. VIEW TWEETS

From This Paper

Figures, tables, and topics from this paper.

Explore Further: Topics Discussed in This Paper

Citations

Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 137 extracted citations

317 Citations

02040'09'12'15'18
Citations per Year
Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 317 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

References

Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 15 references

IEEE Computer

  • J Romein, H Bal
  • IEEE Computer
  • 2003

Artif. Intell

  • J Van Den Herik, J Uiterwijk, J Van Rijswijck
  • Artif. Intell
  • 2002

Syst. J

  • M Buro, Ieee Intell
  • Syst. J
  • 1999

Sci. Am

  • K Appel, W Haken
  • Sci. Am
  • 1977

18. A. Nagai, thesis Proceedings of the Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence

  • D Knuth, R Moore
  • 18. A. Nagai, thesis Proceedings of the…
  • 1975

Philos. Mag

  • C Shannon
  • Philos. Mag
  • 1950

Chinook Web site, with proof (www.cs.ualberta.ca/~chinook)

  • Chinook Web site, with proof (www.cs.ualberta.ca…

John's Connect Four Playground

  • John's Connect Four Playground

Longest 10PC MTC " (http://pages.prodigy.net/eyg/ Checkers/longest-10pc-mtc.htm)

  • Longest 10PC MTC " (http://pages.prodigy.net/eyg…