Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)--pharmacology and clinical indications.

@article{Wuttke2003ChasteT,
  title={Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)--pharmacology and clinical indications.},
  author={Wolfgang Wuttke and Hubertus Jarry and Volker Christoffel and Barbara A. Spengler and Dana Seidlov{\'a}‐Wuttke},
  journal={Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology},
  year={2003},
  volume={10 4},
  pages={
          348-57
        }
}
Extracts of the fruits of chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus = AC) are widely used to treat premenstrual symptoms. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies indicate that one of the most common premenstrual symptoms, i.e. premenstrual mastodynia (mastalgia) is beneficially influenced by an AC extract. In addition, numerous less rigidly controlled studies indicate that AC extracts have also beneficial effects on other psychic and somatic symptoms of the PMS. Premenstrual mastodynia is most likely due… 
Can Vitex Agnus Castus be Used for the Treatment of Mastalgia? What is the Current Evidence?
  • A. Carmichael
  • Medicine
    Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
  • 2008
TLDR
It is concluded that A. castus can be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic agent in the treatment of mastalgia.
Estudo de Revisão da Eficácia Clínica do Vitex agnus-castus na Saúde
TLDR
A greater amount of studies related to the usage and effectiveness of the extract of the chaste tree regarding the relief in cyclical mastodynia and hyperprolactemia of PMS are verified, which it has proven its valid endurance and inhibition against mild pain by dopaminergic principles of VAC.
Estudo de Revisão da Eficácia Clínica do Vitex agnus-castus na Saúde Feminina
TLDR
A greater amount of studies related to the usage and effectiveness of the extract of the chaste tree regarding the relief in cyclical mastodynia and hyperprolactemia of PMS are verified, which it has proven its valid endurance and inhibition against mild pain by dopaminergic principles of VAC.
Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials.
TLDR
Despite some methodological limitations, the results from randomised, controlled trials to date suggest benefits for Vitex extracts in the treatment of pre menstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and latent hyperprolactinaemia.
Vitex agnus-castus dry extract BNO 1095 (Agnucaston®) inhibits uterine hyper-contractions and inflammation in experimental models for primary dysmenorrhea
TLDR
Evidence is provided that BNO 1095 effectively treats menstruation-related complaints including primary dysmenorrhea and shows a promising anti-inflammatory capacity by potently inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene production and by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines in vitro.
Dose-dependent efficacy of the Vitex agnus castus extract Ze 440 in patients suffering from premenstrual syndrome.
Comparative Study of the Effects of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) and Cabergoline on Idiopathic Hyperprolactinemia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
Chamomile syrup seems to be effective on serum prolactin reduction in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia, however, studies with a larger sample size and for a longer follow-up period are recommended.
Vitex Agnus-Castus for the Treatment of Cyclic Mastalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
TLDR
VAC was effective in relieving breast pain intensity and lowering the increased serum prolactin level in reproductive age CM patients (18-45 years) with or without premenstrual syndromes and is a safe and effective treatment option for CM.
The Effects of Vitex agnus castus L . Extract on Gonadotrophines and Testosterone in Male Mice
Usually, the side effects of synthetic drugs appear after a long time of their usage. For that reason, these years, diseases treatment by herbal drugs is very interested. In this study, regarding to
Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste-Tree/Berry) in the treatment of menopause-related complaints.
TLDR
Emerging pharmacological evidence supports a role for V. agnus-castus in the alleviation of menopausal symptoms and suggests that further investigation may be appropriate.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES
[Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].
TLDR
The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the lutenal progesterone synthesis were eliminated and changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group.
Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study.
TLDR
VACS appears effective and was well tolerated and further evaluation of this agent in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia is warranted.
Prolactin inhibiting dopaminergic activity of diterpenes from Vitex agnus castus
The indications covered by extracts of Vitex agnus castus (AC) are menstrual cycle disorders, premenstrual symptoms (PMS) including cyclical mastalgia, and corpus luteum insufficiency. A review on
„Behandlung zyklusabhängiger Brustschmerzen mit einem Agnus castus-haltigen Arzneimittel“
TLDR
The solution and the tablets of the preparation containing Agnus castus are effective in mastalgia, and the stimulated prolactin levels at the end of treatment tended to be lower under both active formulations.
In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay.
TLDR
The findings of the present study support the therapeutical usefulness of AC extracts for treatment of premenstrual mastodynia which is associated with hypersecretion of Prl, and give evidence for the specificity of action of AC on hormone release, since gonadotropin secretion remained unaffected.
LH pulses and the corpus luteum: the luteal phase deficiency LPD).
European multicentre trial of bromocriptine in cyclical mastalgia
Differentiation between vasculoprotective and uterotrophic effects of ligands with different binding affinities to estrogen receptors α and β
TLDR
It is demonstrated that, after endothelial denudation of rat carotid artery, the mRNA of the classical estrogen receptor (ERα) is constitutively expressed at a low level whereas the expression of the novel ERβ mRNA increases >40-fold, suggesting that preferential targeting to ERβ will provide vasculoprotective estrogen analogs devoid of effects to the reproductive system.
Estrogen receptor (ER) b, a modulator of ERa in the uterus
TLDR
Increased cell proliferation and exaggerated response to E2 in BERKO suggest that ERb plays a role in modulation of the effects of ERa and in addition has an antiproliferative function in the immature uterus.
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