Charge fractionalization in nonchiral Luttinger systems

  title={Charge fractionalization in nonchiral Luttinger systems},
  author={Karyn Le Hur and Bertrand I. Halperin and Amir Yacoby},
  journal={Annals of Physics},
One-dimensional metals, such as quantum wires or carbon nanotubes, can carry charge in arbitrary units, smaller or larger than a single electron charge. However, according to Luttinger theory, which describes the low-energy excitations of such systems, when a single electron is injected by tunneling into the middle of such a wire, it will tend to break up into separate charge pulses, moving in opposite directions, which carry definite fractions f and (1-f) of the electron charge, determined by… 

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