Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: inquiries into depression and rape.

  title={Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: inquiries into depression and rape.},
  author={Ronnie Janoff-Bulman},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={37 10},
  • R. Janoff-Bulman
  • Published 1979
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Two types of self-blame--behavioral and characterological--are distinguished. Behavioral self-blame is control related, involves attributions to a modifiable source (one's behavior), and is associated with a belief in the future avoidability of a negative outcome. Characterological self-blame is esteem related, involves attributions to a relatively nonmodifiable source (one's character), and is associated with a belief in personal deservingness for past negative outcomes. Two studies are… 
Self-Blame and Sex-Role Beliefs in Domestic Violence Victims.
ABSTRACT A differentiation between two types of self-blame, behavioral and characterological, has been suggested. Behavioral self-blame is control-related and pertains to attributions made to one's
Victim attributions and post-rape trauma.
  • P. Frazier
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1990
Both kinds of self-blame were significantly associated with increased post-rape depression, and attributions strongly predicted adjustment, accounting for up to 67% of the variance in 3-day post- rape depression.
Esteem and control bases of blame: “Adaptive” strategies for victims versus observers
An experiment was conducted to determine the esteem and control correlates of behavioral and characterological blame for victims and observers. On the basis of a proposed motivation to minimize
Behavioral and characterological attributional styles as predictors of depression and loneliness: review, refinement, and test.
Empirical issues regarding possible methodological refinements and effect size, as well as the value of categorical approaches to the study of attributional style were discussed.
Behavioral and characterological attributional styles as predictors of depression and loneliness: review, refinement, and test.
The literature on self-blame and depression reveals two interrelated problems. First, although R. Janoff-Bulman's (1979) conceptualizations of self-blame are clear, empirical operationalization is
Causal Attributions and Recovery from Rape: Implications for Counseling.
One factor related to postrape trauma is the survivor's belief about the cause of the rape. Most research to date on the relation between causal attributions and postrape recovery has been guided by
Relative preference and adaptiveness of behavioral blame for observers of rape victims.
Observers viewed one of nine dramatized videotaped interviews of a rape victim describing her rape and found behavioral blame was significantly greater than characterological blame when the victim was careless or when no information was provided about behavior, regardless of the victim's character.
Characterological and behavioral self-blame in children: Assessment and development considerations
Abstract A new instrument, the Why It Happened questionnaire, was developed for assessing characterological and behavior self-blame in two samples of third- through ninth-grade children (Sample 1: n
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ABSTRACT The current scales for self-blame are not suitable for school bullying scenarios and most lack validity. This study used a self-developed scale to measure bullied victims’ tendency to
Self-blame among parents of infants with perinatal complications: the role of self-protective motives.
Results of a post hoc path analysis were consistent with the hypothesis that greater perceived severity may produce greater self-blame, which in turn may play an indirect role in adaptation through its association with the belief that a recurrence could be prevented.


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Analysis of victims' attributions of causality for their accidents and their ability to cope with severe misfortune suggested that blaming another and feeling that one could have avoided the accident were successful predictors of poor coping; self-blame was a successful predictor of good coping.
Depression: Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects
Beck concludes that there are no specific signs and symptoms, aside from delusions, to distinguish psychotic from neurotic depressions, and supports the thesis that the two conditions differ only in quantitative aspects.
Coping behavior of the rape victim.
The authors analyzed the reported coping behavior of 92 women diagnosed as having rape trauma, finding that most of the women used verbal, physical, or cognitive strategies when threatened, although 34 were physically or psychologically paralyzed.
The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness.
The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether altering attributions for failure would enable learned helpless children to deal more effectively with failure in an experimental
Effects of control and predictability on the physical and psychological well-being of the institutionalized aged.
  • R. Schulz
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1976
It was found that predictable and controllable positive events have a powerful positive impact upon the well-being of the institutionalized aged.
Locus of Control and Depression.
ABSTRACT •• •' ^ This paper presents several^theoretical positions relating the construct of internal-external locus of,, control to depression. The distinction is made between "theories emphasizing
Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation.
According to the reformulation, once people perceive noncontingency, they attribute their helplessness to a cause and this cause can be stable or unstable, global or specific, and internal or external.
Moral Evaluations and Judgments of Responsibility
There has been a failure to distinguish between moral evaluations and responsibility in the literature on moral judg- ment. Consequently, interpretive problems have occurred because the dependent
The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: a field experiment in an institutional setting.
Assessment of the effects of enhanced personal responsibility and choice on a group of nursing home residents found a significant improvement for the experimental group over the comparison group on alertness, active participation, and a general sense of well-being.
  • W. Zung
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1965
The general depression scales used were felt to be insufficient for the purpose of this research project and the more specific scales were also inadequate.