Characterizing dynamics with covariant Lyapunov vectors.

  title={Characterizing dynamics with covariant Lyapunov vectors.},
  author={Francesco Ginelli and Pietro Poggi and Alessandro Turchi and Hugues Chat{\'e} and Roberto Livi and Antonio Politi},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={99 13},
A general method to determine covariant Lyapunov vectors in both discrete- and continuous-time dynamical systems is introduced. This allows us to address fundamental questions such as the degree of hyperbolicity, which can be quantified in terms of the transversality of these intrinsic vectors. For spatially extended systems, the covariant Lyapunov vectors have localization properties and spatial Fourier spectra qualitatively different from those composing the orthonormalized basis obtained in… 

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