Characterization of toponym usages in texts

@article{Wolf2014CharacterizationOT,
  title={Characterization of toponym usages in texts},
  author={Sebastian Johannes Wolf and Andreas Henrich and Daniel Blank},
  journal={Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Geographic Information Retrieval},
  year={2014}
}
Toponyms in texts and search queries are often used figuratively and do not directly refer to the locations they reference in their literal sense. Different usage kinds and stylistic devices characterize toponym usages in texts. It is thus crucial for a Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) system to precisely distinguish these different toponym usages at indexing and at query time in order to best address a given information need and the geospatial footprint of a document. For that purpose… 

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