Characterization of the stringent and relaxed responses of Streptococcus equisimilis

@article{Mechold1997CharacterizationOT,
  title={Characterization of the stringent and relaxed responses of Streptococcus equisimilis},
  author={Undine Mechold and Horst Malke},
  journal={Journal of Bacteriology},
  year={1997},
  volume={179},
  pages={2658 - 2667}
}
The 739-codon rel(Seq) gene of Streptococcus equisimilis H46A is bifunctional, encoding a strong guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate) 3'-pyrophosphohydrolase (ppGppase) and a weaker ribosome-independent ATP:GTP 3'-pyrophosphoryltransferase [(p)ppGpp synthetase]. To analyze the function of this gene, (p)ppGpp accumulation patterns as well as protein and RNA synthesis were compared during amino acid deprivation and glucose exhaustion between the wild type and an insertion mutant carrying a rel(Seq… Expand
Characterization of a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans.
TLDR
The results suggest that L. interrogans contain a single Rel-like bifunctional protein, RelLin, which plays an important role in maintaining the basal level of (p)ppGpp in the cell potentially contributing to the regulation of bacterial stress response. Expand
Characterization of the RelBbu Regulon in Borrelia burgdorferi Reveals Modulation of Glycerol Metabolism by (p)ppGpp
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the stringent response regulates glycerol metabolism in this organism and is likely crucial for its optimal growth in ticks. Expand
The role of the Corynebacterium glutamicum rel gene in (p)ppGpp metabolism.
TLDR
To investigate the metabolism of (p)ppGpp in amino-acid-producing coryneform bacteria, a PCR-based strategy using degenerate consensus oligonucleotides was applied to isolate the rel gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, which revealed extensive similarities to the related proteins RelA and SpoT of Escherichia coli. Expand
Characterization of the relA/spoT gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus.
TLDR
In vivo data, the genetic organization, and the primary structure compared to other RelA/SpoT homologues provide circumstantial evidence that the identified gene encodes the only (p)ppGpp synthetase in B. stearothermophilus presumed to serve also as ( p)pp Gpp hydrolase. Expand
Cloning and characterization of a bifunctional RelA/SpoT homologue from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
TLDR
In vitro biochemical data indicate that purified RelMtb is a ribosome- and tRNA-independent ATP:GTP/GDP/ITP 3'-pyrophosphoryltransferase, and in vivo reactions were assessed in vivo in E. coli deleted in both the relA and spoT genes, which generates a (p)ppGpp0 phenotype. Expand
Role of RelA of Streptococcus mutans in Global Control of Gene Expression
TLDR
RelA is the major (p)ppGpp synthase controlling the stringent response in S. mutans, and it coordinates the expression of genes and phenotypes that contribute to the pathogenic potential of the organism. Expand
Functional Analysis of relA andrshA, Two relA/spoT Homologues ofStreptomyces coelicolor A3(2)
TLDR
A ppGpp-independent mechanism exists to activate antibiotic production under conditions of phosphate limitation that can be mimicked by overexpression of rshA. Expand
Accumulation of ppGpp in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus rattus following amino acid starvation.
TLDR
It is concluded that ppGpp does accumulate when S. rattus and S. pyogenes are deprived of isoleucine by mupirocin addition. Expand
Relaxed rrn expression and amino acid requirement of a Corynebacterium glutamicum rel mutant defective in (p)ppGpp metabolism.
TLDR
The stringent response in Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated and a Deltarel mutant defective in (p)ppGpp metabolism was investigated, which displayed a relaxed regulation and was unable to reduce the rrn expression under amino acid depletion conditions. Expand
Life in protein‐rich environments: the relA‐independent response of Streptococcus pyogenes to amino acid starvation
TLDR
It is found that, in addition to the (p)ppGpp‐mediated stringent response characterized previously, Streptococcus pyogenes exhibits a relA‐independent response comprising transcriptional modulation of a specific subset of genes involved in pathogenesis. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 51 REFERENCES
Functional analysis of a relA/spoT gene homolog from Streptococcus equisimilis
TLDR
The functional attributes of a gene encountered by sequencing the streptokinase gene region of Streptococcus equisimilis H46A, homologous to two related Escherichia coli genes, spoT and relA, that function in the metabolism of guanosine 5',3'-polyphosphates [(p)ppGpp], were examined. Expand
Functional Analysis of arelA/spoTGene Homolog fromStreptococcus equisimilis
We examined the functional attributes of a gene encountered by sequencing the streptokinase gene region of Streptococcus equisimilisH46A. This gene, originally calledrel, here termedrelS.Expand
Residual guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate synthetic activity of relA null mutants can be eliminated by spoT null mutations.
TLDR
It is proposed that the SpoT protein can either catalyze or control the alternative pathway of ppGpp synthesis in addition to its known role as a (p)ppGpp 3'-pyrophosphohydrolase. Expand
[Role of spot gene product in the degradation of pppGpp in bacteria].
TLDR
The similarity of B. subtilis and E. coli gpp cells in respect of spoT gene product functions and of enhanced pppGpp fraction in the total amount of guanosine polyphosphates during aminoacyl-tRNA limitation makes it plausible that in B.subilis cells the product of gpp gene is missing or has low activity. Expand
Role of spot gene product in the degradation of pppGpp in bacteria
TLDR
The similarity of B. subtilis and E. coli gpp cells in respect of spoT gene product functions and of enhanced pppGpp fraction in the total amount of guanosine polyphosphates during aminoacyl-tRNA limitation makes it plausible that the product of gpp gene is missing or has low activity. Expand
Overexpression of the relA gene in Escherichia coli.
TLDR
The effects of elevated ppGpp levels are found to include a slowing of growth, an inhibition of stable RNA accumulation, an inhibited of cellular rrn P1 promoter activities as measured by primer extension, and changes in the pattern of gene expression viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. Expand
Escherichia coli ppGpp synthetase II activity requires spoT.
TLDR
Results indicate that SpoT is required for PSII activity, suggesting that spoT encodes both ppGpp degradation and synthesis activities and that these two functions can be affected independently by mutation. Expand
Characterization of the relA1 mutation and a comparison of relA1 with new relA null alleles in Escherichia coli.
TLDR
It is proposed that the IS2 insertion functionally splits the RelA protein into two (alpha and beta) peptide fragments which can complement each other in trans to yield residual ppGpp synthetic activity; neither fragment shows this activity when expressed alone. Expand
Lack of production of (p)ppGpp in Halobacterium volcanii under conditions that are effective in the eubacteria
TLDR
The stringent halobacterial strain Haloferax volcanii was subjected to a set of physiological conditions different from amino acid starvation that are known to cause production of guanosine polyphosphates in eubacteria via the relA-independent (spoT) pathway, leading to the conclusion that in halobacteria both growth rate control and stringency are probably governed by mechanisms that operate in the absence of ppGpp. Expand
Guanosine tetraphosphate inhibits protein synthesis in vivo. A possible protective mechanism for starvation stress in Escherichia coli.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that levels ofuanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate similar to those induced by amino acid starvation inhibit the rate of protein synthesis by 84-91%. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...