Characterization of the size, shape, and state of dispersion of nanoparticles for toxicological studies

@article{Powers2007CharacterizationOT,
  title={Characterization of the size, shape, and state of dispersion of nanoparticles for toxicological studies},
  author={Kevin W. Powers and Maria Palazuelos and Brij M. Moudgil and Stephen M Roberts},
  journal={Nanotoxicology},
  year={2007},
  volume={1},
  pages={42 - 51}
}
This paper describes the issues relating to the measurement of nanoparticle size, shape and dispersion when evaluating the toxicity of nanoparticles. Complete characterization of these materials includes much more than size, size distribution and shape; nonetheless, these attributes are usually the essential foundation. The measurement of particle size, particularly at scales of 100 nm or less, can be challenging under the best of conditions. Measurements that are routine in the laboratory… 
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