Characterization of the size, shape, and state of dispersion of nanoparticles for toxicological studies

  title={Characterization of the size, shape, and state of dispersion of nanoparticles for toxicological studies},
  author={Kevin W. Powers and Maria Palazuelos and Brij M. Moudgil and Stephen M Roberts},
  pages={42 - 51}
This paper describes the issues relating to the measurement of nanoparticle size, shape and dispersion when evaluating the toxicity of nanoparticles. Complete characterization of these materials includes much more than size, size distribution and shape; nonetheless, these attributes are usually the essential foundation. The measurement of particle size, particularly at scales of 100 nm or less, can be challenging under the best of conditions. Measurements that are routine in the laboratory… 
Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies
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In deciding the cytotoxicity assay method, it is important to choose the appropriate method that could measure the toxicity of interest without the false-negative or -positive misinterpretation of the toxicity result.
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Since nanotechnology has become increasingly popular and widely used in medicine and cosmetic products, it is crucial to evaluate the safety of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials can diffuse, aggregate,
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Some of the most frequently used assays to assess the cytotoxity and biological reactivity of nanoparticles in vitro, ranging from simple cytotoxicity assays, to measurement of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, activation of proinflammatory signaling, and finally genotoxicity are outlined.
Effects of nanomaterial physicochemical properties on in vivo toxicity.
The physicochemical properties of four representative nanomaterials (dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles) as it relates to their toxicity after systemic exposure is discussed.
Dispersion state and toxicity of mwCNTs in cell culture medium with different T80 concentrations.
In this study, size distribution, zeta potential, shape, and toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwCNTs), and effect of non-ionic detergent Tween 80 (T80) concentrations (0%, 0.2%, and 1%) on


Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials. Part VI. Characterization of nanoscale particles for toxicological evaluation.
Recommendations regarding how best to approach nanomaterial characterization include using proper sampling and measurement techniques, forming multidisciplinary teams, and making measurements as close to the biological action point as possible.
The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC
This review shows that only few specific nanoparticles have been investigated in a limited number of test systems and extrapolation of this data to other materials is not possible, and limited ecotoxicological data for nanomaterials precludes a systematic assessment of the impact of Nanoparticles on ecosystems.
Developing Experimental Approaches for the Evaluation of Toxicological Interactions of Nanoscale Materials
Abstract : The emerging ability to manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic levels has allowed materials scientists to create an array of potential new commercial products. These manufactured
Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of a screening strategy
The working group report presents a broad data gathering strategy applicable to this early stage in the development of a risk assessment process for nanomaterials, and there is a strong likelihood that biological activity of nanoparticles will depend on physicochemical parameters not routinely considered in toxicity screening studies.
In vitro toxicity of respirable-size particles of diatomaceous earth and crystalline silica compared with asbestos and titanium dioxide.
In vitro toxicity did not correlate with crystalline silica content, surface area, composition, volume, particles/cm2, or fibrous geometry, but particle size but not shape could be a determinant of in vitro toxicity.
Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, Part I: evaluating the human health implications of exposure to nanoscale materials.
  • K. Thomas, Phil Sayre
  • Biology, Medicine
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2005
The human health implications of exposure to nanoscales materials in the context of a toxicological risk evaluation are reviewed, the current scope of U.S. Federal research on nanoscale materials, and selected toxicological studies associated with nanoscALE materials are selected to note emerging research in this area are reviewed.
Comparison of micro- and nano-size particle depositions in a human upper airway model
Abstract Simulation results of microparticle and nanoparticle deposition patterns, local concentrations, and segmental averages are contrasted for a human upper airway model starting from the mouth
Selection of Descriptors for Particle Shape Characterization
Conventional shape descriptors, formed from a ratio of two particle size measurements, are among the simplest of the many methods used for quantitative particle shape characterization. However, a
Innate defence functions of macrophages can be biased by nano-sized ceramic and metallic particles.
Exposure to different nanoparticles can modulate, in different ways, the defence/inflammatory capacities of macrophages, and a thorough analysis of these biasing effects may shed light on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of several diseases based on dysregulation of the immune response.
Nanopowder Characterization: Challenges and Future Directions
This article summarizes the conclusions of a workshop organized at the National Institute of Standards and nobreak Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, October 4–5, 2001. The workshop was focused on the