NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (called complex I for mitochondrial enzyme and NDH-1 for bacterial counterparts) is an energy transducer, which utilizes the redox energy derived from the oxidation of NADH with ubiquinone to generate an electrochemical proton gradient (Deltamu(H(+))) across the membrane. The complex I/NDH-1 contain one non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide and as many as eight iron-sulfur clusters as electron transfer components in common. In addition, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies have revealed that three ubisemiquinone (SQ) species with distinct spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties are detectable in complex I and function as electron/proton translocators. Thus, the understanding of molecular properties of the individual quinone species is prerequisite to elucidate the energy-coupling mechanism of complex I. We have investigated these SQ species using EPR spectroscopy and found that the three SQ species have strikingly different properties. We will report characteristics of these SQ species and discuss possible functional roles of individual quinone species in the electron/proton transfer reaction of complex I/NDH-1.