The aim of the present study was to characterize P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (cyp17a1) expression in zebrafish and to assess the effect of the pharmaceutical clotrimazole, a known inhibitor of various cytochrome P450 enzyme activities, on testicular gene and protein expression of this enzyme as well as on the testicular release of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a potent androgen in fish. We first showed that cyp17a1 is predominantly expressed in gonads of zebrafish, notably in male. In vivo, clotrimazole induced a concentration-dependent increase of cyp17a1 gene expression and Cyp17-I protein synthesis in zebrafish testis. Using zebrafish testicular explants, we further showed that clotrimazole did not directly affect cyp17a1 expression but that it did inhibit 11-KT release. These novel data deserve further studies on the effect of azole fungicides on gonadal steroidogenesis.