Characterization of seven genotypes (A to E, G and H) of Hepatitis B virus recovered from Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1

@article{Shibayama2005CharacterizationOS,
  title={Characterization of seven genotypes (A to E, G and H) of Hepatitis B virus recovered from Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1},
  author={Takao Shibayama and Gohta Masuda and Atsushi Ajisawa and Kiyoshi Hiruma and Fumio Tsuda and Tsutomu Nishizawa and Masaharu Takahashi and Hiroaki Okamoto},
  journal={Journal of Medical Virology},
  year={2005},
  volume={76}
}
To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and characteristics of HBV isolates among Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), serum samples collected between September 1990 and March 2002 from 471 HIV‐infected patients (age, 38.8 ± 11.4 [mean ± standard deviation] years; male, 90%) were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA. Positivity for HBsAg and HBV DNA was seen in 42 patients (8.9%), 41 of whom had contracted… 
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Phylogenetic analyses of full-length genomes and precore/core fragments revealed that F4 and F1b were the co-infecting subgenotypes in the Brazilian and Argentinian patients, respectively, andBootscanning analysis provided evidence of recombination in several clones from both patients, with recombination breakpoints located mainly at the precur/core region.
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All HBV/G infections in Canada occur in the context of co-infection or recombination withHBV/A, and strains display increased sequence divergence compared with all known HBV-G sequences described to date.
The distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in Thailand
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Phylogenetic analysis was performed on hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains obtained from 86 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donors from Thailand originating throughout the country, and the genotype H and G/C2 recombination did not interfere with HBV detection.
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Intravenous drug use and male sex were independent risk factors, but old age and presence of HBeAg were independent protective factors for anti-HCV.
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