Characterization of ribosomal frameshifting in HIV-1 gag-pol expression

@article{Jacks1988CharacterizationOR,
  title={Characterization of ribosomal frameshifting in HIV-1 gag-pol expression},
  author={Tyler Jacks and Michael D. Power and Frank R. Masiarz and Paul A. Luciw and Philip J. Barr and Harold Varmus},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1988},
  volume={331},
  pages={280-283}
}
Based on precedents from other retro viruses1, the precursor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase is predicted to be a polyprotein with a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 160,000 (160K) encoded by both the viral pol gene and the upstream gag gene. These two genes lie in different translational reading frames, with the 3′ end of gag overlapping the 5′ end of pol by 205 or 241 nucleotides2–4. Thus, production of the gag-pol fusion protein would require either messenger… Expand
HIV pol Expression via a Ribosomal Frameshift
TLDR
In 1985 two pieces of data suggested that the splicing hypothesis was wrong and RSV frameshifting could be achieved in an in vitro translation system suggesting that the frameshift was due to some event at the ribosome. Expand
Signals for ribosomal frameshifting in the rous sarcoma virus gag-pol region
TLDR
A short sequence of RSV RNA, 147 nucleotides in length, containing the frameshift site and stem-loop structure, is sufficient to direct frameshifting in a novel genetic context. Expand
Overexpression of the gag-pol precursor from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral genomes results in efficient proteolytic processing in the absence of virion production
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the gag-pol polyprotein of HIV-1 contains the appropriate signals for proteolytic processing and association with intracytoplasmic membranes in the absence of virion formation. Expand
The virion-associated Gag-Pol is decreased in chimeric Moloney murine leukemia viruses in which the readthrough region is replaced by the frameshift region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
TLDR
Observations indicate that replacement of the readthrough region of MoMuLV with the frameshift region of HIV-1 results in virions that are replication competent, although less infectious than wild-type Mo MuLV. Expand
Expression and frameshifting but extremely inefficient proteolytic processing of the HIV-1 gag and pol gene products in stably transfected rodent cell lines
TLDR
Despite the presence of the viral protease within the GAG-POL precursors, proteolytic processing of the HIV-derived polyproteins was extremely inefficient and the efficiency could not be enhanced by overexpression of the AIDS-1 protease encoding region. Expand
HIV-1 Mutant Assembly, Processing and Infectivity Expresses Pol Independent of Gag
TLDR
The data suggest that HIV-1 adopts a gag/pol ribosomal frameshifting mechanism to support virus assembly via the efficient modulation of Gag–Pol/Gag expression, as well as to promote viral enzyme packaging. Expand
Translation of gag, pro, and pol gene products of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2
TLDR
The results indicate that translation of the pol gene requires two independent frameshift events, and the readthrough frequencies at the two frameshIFT sites appeared to be similar. Expand
Biosynthesis of the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B viruses involves de novo translational initiation not ribosomal frameshifting
TLDR
Genetic and biochemical studies reveal that the mechanism of polymerase biosynthesis in another family of animal viruses that use reverse transcription, the hepatitis B viruses, does not use ribosomal frameshifting to generate this enzyme, but instead direct translation initiation at an internal initiation (AUG) codon in the polymerase gene. Expand
Extended nucleocapsid protein is cleaved from the Gag-Pol precursor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
TLDR
Results show that truncated Gag-Pol precursors bearing cleavage site mutation at the NC/p6(Pol), and/or p6( Pol)/PR junctions, undergo autoprocessing in bacterial and eukaryotic cells, indicating that PR is active when part of the precursor. Expand
Modulation of HIV-1 Gag/Gag-Pol frameshifting by tRNA abundance
TLDR
It is shown that the frameshifting efficiency is modulated by Leu-tRNALeu that reads the UUA codon at the mRNA slippery site that maintains the Gag to Gag-Pol ratio constant. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting.
TLDR
Ribosomal frameshifting may affect production of other proteins in higher eukaryotes, including proteins encoded by several retroviruses and transposable elements. Expand
Two efficient ribosomal frameshifting events are required for synthesis of mouse mammary tumor virus gag-related polyproteins.
TLDR
The nucleotide sequence of a 1.8-kilobase DNA fragment that spans the region between gag and pol in the C3H strain of mouse mammary tumor virus is determined, revealing three overlapping open reading frames that are not sufficient to induce a frameshift event, and a larger sequence context or secondary structure may be implicated. Expand
Murine leukemia virus protease is encoded by the gag-pol gene and is synthesized through suppression of an amber termination codon.
We have purified from Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) a protease that has the capacity of accurately cleaving the polyprotein precursor Pr65gag into the mature viral structural proteins. BothExpand
Nucleotide sequence and expression of an AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV-2).
TLDR
The nucleotide sequence of molecular clones of DNA from a retrovirus, ARV-2, associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), was determined and the cloned gag and env genes of ARv-2 were shown to express viral proteins. Expand
Complete nucleotide sequence of a milk-transmitted mouse mammary tumor virus: two frameshift suppression events are required for translation of gag and pol
TLDR
Two recombinant DNA clones constituting a single provirus of the milk-transmitted mouse mammary tumor virus characteristic of BR6 mice are sequenced and direct evidence is presented for translational readthrough of both stop codons in an in vitro protein synthesis system. Expand
Translational readthrough of an amber termination codon during synthesis of feline leukemia virus protease
Feline leukemia virus contains a protease which apparently has the same specificity as murine leukemia virus protease. It cleaves in vitro the Pr65gag of Gazdar-mouse sarcoma virus into theExpand
Nucleotide sequence of rous sarcoma virus
TLDR
It is hypothesized that E was part of a duplicated region of over 250 nucleotides flanking the src gene in an ancestral RSV, and that differential deletion of one copy of E led to its positional difference in Pr-C and SR-A. Expand
Nucleic acid structure and expression of the human AIDS/lymphadenopathy retrovirus
The 9,213-nucleotide structure of the AIDS/ lymphadenopathy virus has been determined from molecular clones representing the integrated provirus and viral RNA. The sequence reveals that the virus isExpand
Nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, LAV
TLDR
The complete 9193-nucleotide sequence of the probable causative agent of AIDS, lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV), has been determined and shows two novel open reading frames the authors call Q and F, which place LAV apart from the previously characterized family of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma viruses. Expand
Recombinant polypeptide from the endonuclease region of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome retrovirus polymerase (pol) gene detects serum antibodies in most infected individuals
TLDR
To determine if this 31,000-dalton immunoreactive species originated from the putative endonuclease region of the polymerase (pol) gene of ARV, cloned this portion of pol into bacterial expression vectors for direct expression and for expression as a fusion protein with human superoxide dismutase. Expand
...
1
2
3
...