Thickening of the cell wall in macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
During a period from 1978 to 1989, 413 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated at 27 different geographical regions in Hungary; they exhibited an inducible resistance to the 14-membered macrolides and streptogramin type B antibiotics, but not to the 16-membered macrolides and lincosamides: this resistance is referred to as PMS resistance phenotype. The isolates were mostly associated with patients suffering from staphylococcal diseases and with hygienic screenings in hospitals and closed communities. They were rarely isolated from food-poisoning cases, food hygienic screenings, or animal sources. Strains with PMS resistance phenotype were resistant to penicillin (99.0%), tetracycline (78.7%), and chloramphenicol (63.0%); however, they were susceptible to oxacillin. Most of them (94.2%) belonged to the phage type 52-complex. The determinant for PMS phenotype was located on plasmids, which also encoded beta-lactamase production and cadmium ion resistance, but not arsenate resistance. Three types of plasmid with molecular size of 50 kilobases (kb), 23.8 kb, and 16.8 kb, were found among the strains with PMS resistance phenotype, and the 50 kb and 23.8 kb plasmids also encoded mercury resistance. The 16.8 kb and 23.8 kb plasmids belonged to incompatibility group 1.