Characterization of organic fouling in reverse osmosis membranes by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Adsorption of organic substances on reverse osmosis (RO) membrane surfaces may form an organic film on the membrane, known as organic fouling, and cause flow-rate loss. This problem is mostly unavoidable as no pretreatment method exists for perfect removal of possible foulants, including organic compounds resulting from undesirable bioactivity… CONTINUE READING