Rabbits were immunized with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The antisera (anti-RMC) were checked for their reactivity with RMC by intradermal skin tests in rats. The best serum was selected and absorbed with rat liver cells and rat immunoglobulins, including IgE. The absorbed serum (anti-RMCabs), as well as the anti-RMC serum, were then tested for their reactivity with RMC. Both sera were cytotoxic to RMC but only anti-RMC was cytotoxic for rat lymph node cells. Both sera gave positive reactions in rat skin, as seen by the permeability to Evan's blue dye. The binding of rat IgE to RMC was also inhibited by both sera. A control rabbit anti-rat sarcoma serum absorbed with liver cells did not show any interaction with RMC. When 125I-labeled RMC surface antigens were precipitated with anti-RMCabs and analyzed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several components were observed. Among these was one with a mobility identical to that of a mast cell surface component that had previously been identified as the receptor for IgE or at least a component thereof.