Characterization of a new human monoclonal antibody directed against the Vel antigen

@article{Danger2016CharacterizationOA,
  title={Characterization of a new human monoclonal antibody directed against the Vel antigen},
  author={Yannic Danger and S. Danard and V. Gringoire and Thierry Peyrard and P. Riou and Gilbert Semana and Franck V{\'e}rit{\'e}},
  journal={Vox Sanguinis},
  year={2016},
  volume={110}
}
The Vel blood group antigen is a poorly characterized high‐prevalence antigen. Until now, anti‐Vel antibodies have been observed in only alloimmunized Vel‐negative individuals. In this study, we aimed to establish a human hybridoma cell line secreting the first anti‐Vel monoclonal antibody (mAb), clone SpG213Dc. 
Development of a recombinant anti‐Vel immunoglobulin M to identify Vel‐negative donors
TLDR
The production of a recombinant anti‐Vel is reported that also identifies weak Vel expression and is reported to be the first of its type to be produced in the world.
The Vel blood group system: a review
TLDR
While screening for Vel– blood donors has become easier, the function of SMIM1 is still unknown, and despite its well-conserved sequence across the animal kingdom, the enigma continues.
Identification and characterisation of SMIM1 variants determining the Vel blood group
The Vel blood group antigen is present on red blood cells from all humans except rare Vel-negative individuals, who can form antibodies to Vel in response to transfusion or pregnancy. It was first
SMIM1, carrier of the Vel blood group, is a tail-anchored transmembrane protein and readily forms homodimers in a cell-free system
TLDR
The data consistently indicate that SMIM1 has its short C-terminus located extracellularly and that it most likely belongs to the tail-anchored class of membrane proteins with the bulk of the polypeptide located in the cytoplasm.
Molecular screening of Vel‐blood donors using DNA pools in Nanjing, China
TLDR
A large-scale survey was conducted to screen for Vel− blood donors in Nanjing, China using a molecular strategy based on the specific detection of the SMIM1 c.64_80del allele by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP).
Dimerization of small integral membrane protein 1 promotes cell surface presentation of the Vel blood group epitope
TLDR
It is demonstrated that dimerization of SMIM1 promotes cell surface display of the Vel epitope and is mediated both by an extracellular Cys77‐dependent, homomeric disulfide linkage and via a GxxxG helix–helix interaction motif in the transmembrane domain.
Hematologic complications in a patient with Glycine soja polyagglutination following fresh frozen plasma transfusion
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The patient’s confounding hematologic complications can best be explained by polyagglutination, which developed secondary to the severe MRSA infection, and needs to be recognized to appropriately manage hemotherapy.
Application of flow cytometry in transfusion medicine
TLDR
The utility of the flow cytometer-based crossmatch for detection of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies is also gaining popularity in the field of histocompatibility and immunogenetics and looks promising for clinical decision-making in the near future.
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Anti‐Vel reactivity diminished by adsorption with rabbit RBC stroma
BACKGROUND : An anti‐Vel, nearly missed in antibody identification studies, and the effect of a commercially available rabbit RBC stroma (RESt, Immucor) adsorptions on eight anti‐Vel sera are
Haemolytic disease of the newborn because of rare anti‐Vel
TLDR
Routine screening for maternal immunization in a 36‐year‐old woman revealed an alloimmunization against the high‐incidence Vel antigen during a second pregnancy, which developed haemolytic disease of the newborn, with severe jaundice and reticulocytosis.
New human monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting C, c, E, e, K1, Jka, and Jkb red cell antigens
TLDR
Use of MAbs instead of PAbs for routine typing will result in distinctly stronger reactions, shorter testing times, and decreased anti-human globulin reagent and equipment needs, and product quality will be more standardized, since uniform batches of antibody from immortalized hybrid cell lines can be made available in virtually unlimited supply.
Disruption of SMIM1 causes the Vel− blood type
TLDR
The biochemical and genetic basis of the Vel blood group antigen, which has been a vexing mystery for decades, is reported and two highly specific DNA‐based tests for rapid Vel genotyping, which can be easily integrated into blood group genotypesing platforms are developed.
Applications of murine and humanized chimaeric monoclonal antibodies for red cell phenotyping
TLDR
It is concluded that MIMA‐8 is suitable for screening donors and typing patient RBCs and humanized chimaeric IgM anti‐Jsb and anti‐Fya are suitable as typing reagents by direct agglutination methods.
Impact of genetic variation in the SMIM1 gene on Vel expression levels
TLDR
The genetic basis for weak Vel expression levels is investigated and a high‐throughput genotyping assay is developed to detect Vel– donors and improveSerologic determination of the Vel– phenotype is challenging due to variableVel expression levels.
[Immunohematologic study and transfusion approach to patients with public antibodies].
TLDR
In patients with anti-red cell antibodies against high-frequency antigens, red blood cells treatment with proteolytic enzymes (ZZAP, ficin) and AET are useful techniques to approach to their identification.
Homozygosity for a null allele of SMIM1 defines the Vel-negative blood group phenotype
TLDR
SNP profiling and transcriptional network modeling are combined to link the Vel-negative phenotype to SMIM1, located in a 97-kb haplotype block on chromosome 1p36, and this gene encodes a previously undiscovered, evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein expressed on RBCs, establishingSMIM1 as anew erythroid gene and Vel as a new blood group system.
SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits
The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with
Unsatisfactory Detection of an in vivo Haemolytic Anti-Vel by the Gel Test
TLDR
In rare cases life-threatening haemolytic activity of an irregular blood group antibody may be undetected by a commercial microcolumn gel test kit in which EDTA is a constituent.
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