Resistance to clofentezine was identified in four populations of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), from apple orchards in Ontario after ca. 5 years use. Resistance was expressed at high levels (> 2000-fold at the LC 50) to clofentezine in a population selected in the laboratory. This population was resistant to hexythiazox and to the organotin compounds cyhexatin and fenbutatin-oxide. However, a population selected with fenbutatin-oxide did not show cross resistance to clofentezine. The clofentezine-resistant population was not resistant to pyridaben, propargite or dicofol. The synergists, piperonyl butoxide and DEF, were ineffective in overcoming the resistance. Resistance to clofentezine declined rapidly in a mixed population (most resistance was lost in fewer than three generations). There were several fitness factors (fewer eggs/female, longer egg stage, longer development time for males) associated with the resistant population which may have contributed to the loss of resistant phenotypes. However, in a second test in which selection was removed from a resistant population, resistance persisted for at least 10 generations. Observations on field populations indicated that resistance persisted for at least two seasons.